Essay National Leader Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi - Father of The Nation
By Ritu Johari (The Post Graduate Category)
The period from 1920 to 1947 had been described as the Gandhian Era in Indian Politics. During the period, Gandhi spoke the final word on behalf of the Indian National Congress in negotiating with the British Government for constitutional reforms, and for chalking out a programme for the national movement.
Mahatma Gandhi led the national freedom struggle against the British rule. The most unique thing about this struggle was that it was completely nonviolent.
Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. After finishing his early education in India, he sailed to England in 1891 and qualified as Barrister. In 1894, Gandhi went to South Africa in connection with a law suit.
The political career of Gandhi started in South Africa where he launched a Civil Disobedience Movement against the maltreatment meted out to Asian settlers. In 1916, he returned to India and took up the leadership of National Freedom Struggle.
After the death of freedom fighter and congress leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak on August, 1920, Gandhi became virtually the sole navigator of the ship of the congress. Gandhi had whole heartedly supported the British during the 1st World War (1914-1919). The end of war, however, did not bring the promised freedom for India. So Gandhiji launched many movements to force the British to concede India its Independence. The well known being: Non Co-operation Movement (1920), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and Quit India Movement (1942).
The British passed the Rowlett Act in 1919 to deal with the revolutionaries. Gandhi made the Rowlett Act an issue and appealed to the people to observe peaceful demonstration on April 6, 1919. Gandhi's call for peaceful demonstration met with tremendous response. It led to mass demonstrations in Punjab and Delhi. The Jallianwala Massacre (1919) was a sequel of this agitation. The Indian people were shocked by the way the British conducted themselves. Gandhi them launched a non-co-operation in 1920 against the British rule. On 12th March 1930, Gandhi started his Civil Disobedience with his famous 'Dandi March' to break the salt laws. Many leaders and persons courted arrest. Then followed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact for the participation of the congress in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931. On March 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps came to India with his proposals which were rejected by all political parties. The failure of the Cripps Mission led to unprecedented disturbances. Disillusioned and disappointed, the congress passed at Bombay the Quit India Resolution (August 8, 1942). The British were asked to leave India forthwith. The moving spirit behind the resolution was Gandhiji. The Quit India Movement was the greatest challenge to the British empire.
Gandhi was a great leader, a saint and a great social reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He believed in simple living and high thinking. Every body who came in contact with him were so deeply influenced by his personality. He was a Champion of democracy and was deadly opposed to dictatorial rule. Gandhi showed India and the World the path of truth and non-violence. He believed that it was truth alone that prevailed in the end. Gandhi believed that real India lived in more than five lakhs villages uplift. According to him India's real emancipation depended on Swadeshi i.e. boycott of foreign goods, use of khadi encouragement to village and cottage industries.
Gandhi began to work day and night for the freedom of his country. He and his brave followers went to jail again and again, and suffered terrible hardships. Thousands of them were starved, beaten, ill treated and killed, but they remained true to their master. At last his noble efforts bore fruit and on August 15,1947, India became free and independent. Gandhi defeated the mighty British empire not with swords or guns , but by means of strange and utterly new weapons of truth and Ahimsa. He worked all through his life for Hindu- Muslim Unity and the abolition of untouchability. Gandhi worked hard for the upliftment of the Harijans, the name given by him to the untouchables. Gandhi declared untouchability a sin against God and Man.
Gandhi wrote his famous autobiography under the title 'My Experiments with Truth'. Gandhi always stood for communal harmony, but he himself was shot dead by a religious fanatic Nathuram Godse on 30th January, 1948. The whole World mourned his death.
Concluding Remarks: Some one had quipped: "If they had not thrown Gandhi out of the train in South Africa, the English would not have too much trouble from him." Gandhi, the young Attorney, vowed to oppose such unfair treatment- through non-co-operation and other nonviolent means.
Gandhi's ultimate search was for righteous conduct. The means are more important than the end, he maintained; with the right means, desired ends will follow. In time, he was proven right- almost always. His struggles and actions were but external manifestations of his struggle to evolve his own value system. Mahatma Gandhi better known as the father of Nation because it was he who got freedom for us. He was the maker of Modern India.
There is no denying fact that some leaders are born great, but it is also fact leader have learned a lot of things through teaching, the experience of life and after a lot of observations.I tend to believe that Mahatma Gandhi is the great leader. Heis the father of the nation.”My experiments with truth” book describes the life of Mahatma Gandhi and Mahatma Gandhi’s autobiography. It is one of the best books which describe the whole life of Mahatma Gandhi. This book covers the whole life, autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi’s up to 1928.Gandhiji autobiographies generally obtain self-praise from all people around the world.
Mahatma Gandhi has given a lot of sacrifices for the sake of the country. Other autobiographies usually criticize their opponents and try to boost their images in the eyes of people. But the reality is that Mahatma Gandhi autobiographies are free from all these things. He always follows the truth, sincerity in their whole life. He is a role model for all of us.
He always follows moral principles, and it is a bitter truth he was too harsh on himself. He did not believe in fake things and he did not want to show the people how good he was. The main motive of life is the realization of the truth. He follows spiritual principles and believes in practical life. He always ready to remove impurities in himself. He always tried to stick to the truth and gave the message to people follow right pat, truth in their life.
Sticking to the truth means Satyagraha. Gandhi called his experiments as “experiments with truth and in other words, he called experiments in the science of Satyagraha.
India calls Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of Nations. People knew Mahatma Gandhi as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi always showered their love to Children, people, the nation in an unprecedented measure. He was one of the great sages and Prophets. Mahatma Gandhi was almost incarnation of God who had comes to this world to break the chains of slavery. The whole world gives him a lot of reverence, respect for their Sacrifices.
Even their opponents bowed to him in reverence. Mahatma Gandhi was a great Warrior and great scholar. Mahatma Gandhi did not declare himself as prophets or having super human’s powers. He did not consider himself a great orator, great writer. He always asserted himself the Simple person. He believes in Simple living and High Thinking. He was born in middle – Class family known as bania Family. He was the humble, polite and far-sighted person. He always followed sincerity, honesty, truthfulness in their whole life. He was the shy, nervous, and mediocre student. For Mahatma Gandhi, Understanding meant action.
Mahatma Gandhi Believed in soul force. Soul force was the force of the greatest power. He started constructive programme Satyagraha. This Programme was meant to awaken and strengthen the soul force. He always tried and aroused a nation from semi-consciousness. India was not a united country; the society was divided into different classes, castes, and races. And there is the variety of people with different languages, religions, and culture. The environment was that where almost half of the population of women was behind purdah or confined to four walls of the house. Mahatma Gandhi never flinches from taking risks and he never minds to confess mistakes. Mahatma Gandhi was a strong personality and no opposition party could affect him.
He did a lot of sacrifices for the people. He always Believed in god, and always saw god in the oppressed and depressed people. Mahatma Gandhi was a fragile man, and it was not easy for anyone to break him. He is the best example of soul force and conviction. Mahatma Gandhi was a fragile man so he could Mobilize the masses and defeat mighty British Empire. Mahatma Gandhi believed in eleven vows and his techniques of Satyagraha helped the people to awaken and strengthen the soul force. He was a great motivational personality. He always inspired the masses to fight For their rights.
Gandhi Non – Cooperation Movement
Mahatma Gandhi main motive is to get complete Independence for the country. So For this purpose, the Congress passed the act, which is called” Quit India Resolution” and it was declared on 8th August 1942.At this moment Gandhi and other leaders were arrested. At that time there was a great revolt rose in the country. Due to revolt all the sides, Government property, and public places were burnt and destroyed in several places and Different areas. Due to this, railways lines and telegraphic communications were not working at that time. Most of the great leaders were in jail. People who are unarmed faced Police Lathis, and bullets.
The People on the roads showed unprecedented courage and Heroism. Most of Government Machinery was paralyzed. Many worker and people went underground. 1000 people died in firing, and almost 1600 were injured and approximately 60000, people were arrested. Government Property was completely burnt in the atmosphere of great violence. In this revolt, there was no harm to Englishmen and People.
With the help of Gandhi temptation and contribution, the rebellion was slowly put down. Gandhi was prisoned and put in Agakhan jail. Gandhiji was accused and blamed by the British for creating disturbances. Gandhiji could bear these false accuses which were imposed by Britishers and this complete matter of his questioning of his faith, trust, sincerity, and honesty. So Gandhiji fasted for 21 days. Gandhiji had lost her wife Kasturba and his Secretary Mahadev Desai in the Agakhan Palace. It was the great tragic movement for Gandhiji Life. This was a great blow to him. Gandhi was finally released from the Agakhan palace in May 1944 on health grounds. Then after this, he had made complete efforts to break the political stalemate.
Problems of India in South Africa
In South Africa, the Small Indian Community was facing many problems. The Laborers was
In bad condition. The condition of Laborers was like slaves. 4000 Laborers were sent from
India to South Africa around the year 1860-1890. Many of the Laborers who came from
India to South Africa was settled there. After their agreement period, they have started Business or farming there. Many of the Europeans did not like Indians to settle in South Africa. The Europeans faced difficulty to face competition from Indian Traders. Consequently, white rulers imposed heavy taxes and restrictions on Indians.
Even Europeans did not give citizenship rights to Indians, Like Right to Vote. Many of Indians were humiliated. They were called coolies. Many of the Newspaper published Indians were uncivilized and dirty. Even Indians had not permission to enter any hotel and even not allow traveling in railways. They were hated and criticized in all matters by the dominant white community.
Gandhiji fights for Racial Discrimination
Gandhiji had traveled to Pretoria because Gandhiji had pinched with a lot of Racial Discrimination in South Africa. When he had traveled to Pretoria, and he was traveling In the first class, then Railways officials and white passengers asked him to leave the First Class compartment. Gandhiji refused but the truth was that he was thrown out along this Luggage. It was the severely cold night on the platform of Maritz burg Station. It was difficult Night for Gandhiji, Gandhiji spent the whole night shivering and thinking furiously. Eventually, he decided to stay in South Africa and took steps to eradicate Racial Discrimination and suffered a lot of hardships. It was a historic decision. It had completely transformed Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji had covered some distance by a stagecoach.
During his traveling, Gandhiji was too insulted and beaten. When Gandhiji reached Pretoria, He called the meeting of the Local Indians. When he made a conversation with India, he had To learn about the severe conditions of Indians there. Then he formed an association there And made his first public speech. He offered the services for the cause. Gandhiji later through arbitration settled the case. But when he knew in a farewell party, about the bill To restrict Indian franchise. Gandhiji thought that it had grave implications. The people forced him to stay in Africa for some time. He was agreed to it. Now, this was the first fight for Gandhiji. He organized a signature campaign and addressed the meeting and written the formal request to the legislative assembly. Gandhiji became a successful lawyer and he started regular legal Practice. At the same moment, National Indian Congress was born and permanent agitation Many illiteral laborers also joined this struggle. After that for a brief period, Gandhiji visited India in 1896.When he came to India he had met with renowned leaders and these leaders also joined more publicity to South Africa Struggle.
In South Africa, Rumours had reached that Gandhiji had defamed the whites there and Whites thought that Gandhiji was coming with a large number of Indians to swamp the Natal Colony. It was wrong. These all humor and rumors made Gandhiji furious. Gandhiji Had to face the fury, he had entered the port town secretly, but he was found out. Whites wanted to hang him, But luckily Police Superintendent saved him and his wife. Gandhiji forgave his assailants.
In conclusion, some leaders are born great by god grace while other leaders are made after learning a lot of things like perceptions, teaching, and experience of life.Every Leader has leadership characteristics that describe his real identity.
Essay Never Judge a Person By External Influences
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