Nationalism Case Study Italy And Germany Ppt Template

Presentation on theme: "NATIONALISM CASE STUDY: ITALY AND GERMANY 8.3. Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Authoritarian Leaders began to use nationalism to their benefit…unite."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Authoritarian Leaders began to use nationalism to their benefit…unite masses of people

3 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires Three aging empires: 1. Austrian Empire (Hapsburgs) 2. Russian Empire (Romanovs) 3. Ottoman Empire (Turks) They all contained a mixture of ethnic groups These ethnic groups created unrest and eventually overhauled the empires

4 The Breakup of the Austrian Empire Austrian Empire brought together: Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs and Italians After the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Prussia (who won) gained the newly formed German Confederation Hungarians then pressured Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria to give them their own state ∴ Austria-Hungary is formed…each their own independent state under Francis Joseph’s rule Completely broken up after WWI, experienced 40 years of nationalist disputes.


6 The Russian Empire Crumbles Second Half of the 1800s: Russian Empire was 370 years old under the leadership of many czars Czars ruled over Russians, 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, + many more smaller ethnic groups  each w/ own culture Romanovs issued the policy of Russification: Forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire Ethnic groups backlashed, increased nationalism for their own culture even more and greatly weakened the Russian Empire During WWI couldn’t handle the pressure and the last Romanov stepped down (1917)!


8 The Ottoman Empire Weakens Turks controlled Greeks (until 1830), Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, + Armenians 1856: Under serious pressure from Britain + France, Ottomans gave all ppl = citizenship Greatly angered the Turks: For example: In response to Armenian nationalism the Turks massacred + deported the Armenians Completely broken up after WWI


10 Cavour Unites Italy Italian nationalists looked towards the Kingdom of Sardinia (largest + most powerful Italian state) They had adopted a liberal constitution in 1848 1852: Camillo di Cavour was named prime minster to the King of Sardinia Sought to unite Italy  1 st step push Austria out of Northern Italy Napoleon III agreed to help Cavour defeat Austria and they did Got all of Northern Italy back w/the exception of Venetia

11 Garibaldi Brings Unity Cavour, was also secretly working to unite southern Italy during this time Helping southern nationalist rebels ∴ in Southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi led a nationalist army in 1860 and captured Sicily Garibaldi + his followers always wore a bright red shirt ∴ the became known as the “Red Shirts” Agreed to unite southern and northern Italy under the control of the Sardinian King 1866: Gained control of Venetia (Venice) 1870: Gained control of Papal States (besides Rome)


13 Bismarck Unites Germany 1815 (thru Congress of Vienna) 39 states joined to form the German Confederation Largely controlled by Austria, but.. Prussia anxious to unify the states

14 Prussia Leads German Unification Unlike Austria-Hungry, Prussia had a primarily German population ∴ nationalism unified Prussia 1848 – Berlin rioters achieved a liberal constitution

15 Bismarck Takes Control 1861 – Wilhelm I (King of Prussia) asks Parliament for $ in order to double the size of the army They refuse Wilhelm sees this as a major challenge to his authority The Junkers supported this view Strongly conservative members of Prussia’s wealthy landowning class I am a Junker! Otto von Bismarck

16 Bismarck Takes Control 1862 – Wilhelm names Otto von Bismarck, a conservative Junker as his Prime Minister Bismarck was a master of realpolitik: “The politics of reality”  no nonsense, tough power politics w/ little room for idealism. Bismarck stated he would rule w/o consent of the parliament + w/o a legal budget Direct violation of the 1848 constitution Page 262 quote

17 Prussia Expands 1864 – Bismarck of Prussia and Austria form an alliance Go to war against Demark and win Schleswig and Holstein Schleswig went to Prussia, and Holstein to Austria

18 Seven Weeks’ War Bismarck purposely pick a border war with Austria over this newly gained territory Austria declared war on Prussia in 1866  known as the Seven Weeks’ War. Prussians had a superior army and very decisively humiliated and beat Austria Austria lost the area of Venetia (given to Italy) and had to accept the annexation of more German territory


20 The Franco Prussian War 1867: Bismarck thought he could gain southern German support by crafting a war with France Created the impression that the French Ambassador insulted the Prussian King France responded by declaring war on Prussia Prussian Army pours into France and took 83,000 prisoners including Napoleon III Forced Parisians into starvation until they surrendered Won the Southern Germans with strong national pro- German sentiments and they then accepted Prussian leadership King Wilhelm I named Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia. German Second Reich


Nationalism: Unification of Italy and Germany

PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes

Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction

Chapter 24, Section 3

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Nationalism: Italy and Germany

Chapter 24 Section 3

Slide 2

Nationalism: A sentiment or sense of belonging and pride for your country, nationality or culture

Slide 3

Nationalism contributes to the formation of two new nations and a new political order in Europe

Slide 4

Nationalism: A Force For Unity or Disunity

Slide 5

Effects of Nationalism

    -Nationalism can be used to unite countries or tear them apart

        -Three Different types of Nationalist Movements



            -State Building

Slide 6


    -Merging Culturally Similar Land

        -Vast majority of the people in these states are Ethnic Germans

Slide 7


    -Splitting Off Culturally Distinct Groups

        -Example: Yugoslavia 1989-1992

Slide 8

State Building

    -Culturally distinct groups form a new state by accepting a single culture.

Slide 9

Higher Order Question: How is State Building still taking place in the United States

Answer: New immigrants adapting to U.S. Culture

Slide 10

Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires

Nationalism weakens and eventually threatens to bring down these aged empires

Slide 11

Culture: The Traditions, Customs or Way of Life for a community of people

Slide 12

Multi-Cultural Empires

    -Austrian Empire

        -Hapsburg Family

    -Russian Empire


    -Ottoman Empire

        -Ottoman Turks

Slide 13

The Break-Up of the Austrian Empire

-Austria and Hungary Split Into Two Governments

Slide 14

The Ethnic Make-Up of the Austrian Empire

    -The Austrian Empire includes people from many ethnic groups:

        -Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croates, Poles, Serbs and Italians

Slide 15

Austro-Prussian War

    -1866, Prussia defeats Austria

        -Prussia gains control of the North German Confederation

    -The Hungarians put pressure on Francis Joseph to split the country into two separate states.

    -Nationalists disputes will weaken the 

Slide 16


    -Francis Joseph: Austrian Empire

        -Francis Joseph: Austrian Emperor, Hungarian Emperor

Slide 17

Higher Order Question: What did Emperor Francis Joseph hope to accomplish by splitting the empire in two?

Answer: Satisify nationalistic feelings in Hungary and still maintain control of both states

Slide 18

The Russian Empire Crumbles

    -Large minorities react to forced Russification

Slide 19

The Russian Empire Crumbles

    -After 370 years, Russian Czars (Romanovs) begin losing control over their empire

    -Russification: forcing other peoples to adopt to Russian Culture

        -Policy further disunites Russia, strengthens Ethnic Nationalism

    -Ethnic Groups in The Russian Empire: Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Uzbeks, Georgians, Chechens, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Armenians, Turks…….

Slide 20

Higher Order Question: How was Russification supposed to strengthen the Russian Empire?

Answer: If people shared the same culture they would feel apart of the Empire

Slide 21

The Ottoman Empire Weakens

    -Internal Tensions among ethnic groups weakens the empire

    -Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turk Citizens

        -Turks, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Albanians, Slavs, Armenians

Slide 22

Higher Order Question: The Turks in the Ottoman Empire would be considered on what side of the Political Spectrum?

Answer: Conservative: They wanted only Turks to have citizenship in the empire.

Slide 23

Cavour Unites Italy

-Discontent with foreign rule leads to Nationalism in Italian Regions

    -Camillo di Cavour: Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852

Slide 24

The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia

    -Piedmont-Sardinia largest and most powerful Italian State

        -Developed a Liberal Constitution in 1848, that appealed to Middle Class

    -King Victor Emmanuel II named Camillo di Cavour as Prime Minister

Slide 25

-Cavour worked non-stop to increase Piedmont-Sardinia’s Power using:

    -Skillful Diplomacy

    -Well Chosen Alliances

        -Wanted to gain control of Northern Italy

Slide 26

The Austrian Road Block

-Austria dominated the states of Northern Italy and therefor was the biggest road block to unification

    -Cavour gained France’s support to drive Austria out of Northern Italy

    -The combined force defeated Austria and secured Northern Italy for Sardinia

        -Venetia was the only land they could not secure

Slide 27

Garibaldi Brings Unity

    -As Cavour was uniting Northern Italy, he was secretly aiding Nationalist Rebels in Southern Italy led by Giuseppe Garibaldi

Garibaldi and his followers always wore Red Shirts and that’s why the became know as the “Red Shirts”.

Slide 28


    -Giuseppe Garibaldi Leads Nationalists who conquer Southern Italy

    -Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite Southern Italy and Sardinia

        -Garibaldi steps aside, allowing The King of Sardinia to rule

        -Control of Venetia, Papal States finally unites Italy, 1870

Slide 29

Bismarck Unites Germany

    -After many years of Austrian Domination, Prussia rises to lead German Unification

In 1815, 39 German States formed a loose alliance called the German Confederation, which was dominated by Austria.

Slide 30

Prussia’s Advantages

    -Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany

        -Mainly German Population

        -Powerful Army

        -Creation of a Liberal Constitution

        -Powerful Prime Minister

Slide 31

Higher Order Question: What do you think Liberal Constitution means?

Answer: Liberal means it was a change from the old way of doing things: More power to the legislature (people) instead of to the king.

Slide 32

Bismarck Takes Control

-Prussian Junker, Strategist and Master of Real Politik

Slide 33

A New King of Prussia

-1861, Wilhelm I succeeds Frederick William as King

    -Parliament refused him money to double the strength of the army

        -A challenge to his authority

    -Junkers: Conservative, wealthy , landowners- support Wilhelm I

Slide 34

-Junkers Realpolitik Master: Otto Von Bismarck, becomes Prime Minister

-Realpolitik: Power Politics without room for idealism

    -U.S. idealistically opposed to Iran and North Korea

    -Can engage those countries: Reality Politics

Realpolitik: “The Politics of Reality” 

Slide 35

Bismarck Defies The Prussian Parliament

“It is not by the means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided, that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849, but by Blood & Iron” Bismarck

Slide 36

Prussia Expands “Blood and Iron”

    -1864, Prussia and Austria ally to fight Denmark, gain two border provinces

        -Schleswig and Holstein

    -Quick victory makes other German States and European Nations respect Prussia

After the victory Austria governed Schleswig and Prussia governed Holstein. The victory increased national pride in Prussia

Slide 37

Seven Weeks War

-1866, Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war.

-Prussia humiliates Austria, seizes territory: Northern Germany

-Eastern and Western parts of Prussian Kingdom joined for first time in 1867

Austria was provoked into declaring war on Prussia.  Italy was allied with Prussia against Austria as well and received Venetia from Austria

Slide 38

The Franco-Prussian War

-Bismarck calculated that only an outside threat would unite Prussia and the Southern Germans

Slide 39


-The North was largely Protestant and the South was largely Catholic

    -The South resisted domination by a Protestant Prussia

Slide 40

The Deception

-Bismarck provokes war with France (Outside Threat) to unite all Germans

    -Bismarck creates the impression that the French Ambassador had insulted the Prussian King

-The French then declared war on Prussia: July 1870

Slide 41

German Victory

-German Troops poor over the borderland capture Napoleon III

    -Paris surrenders after being under siege

-Prussia is victorious!

-Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian Dominance, 1871

-Wilhelm II crowned Kaiser of the Second Reich at the Palace of Versailles

The Holy Roman Empire is considered the First Reich.  Hitler’s Germany is considered the 3rd Reich

Slide 42

Higher Order Question: Why didn’t Bismarck just declare war on France

Answer: The Southern Germans would never have united for an aggressive Prussian War.  Bismarck had to make the impression all of Germany was under attack!

Slide 43

A Shift In Power

The Balance of Power created in the Congress of Vienna shifted into an unbalanced  situation the mid 1800’s

Slide 44

Balance is Lost

-In 1815, The Congress of Vienna established the Five Powers in Europe

    -Austria, Prussia, Britain, France and Russia

-By 1871, Britain and Prussia (Now Germany) were the most powerful

-Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically

Slide 45

Higher Order Question: What could be the consequences of an unbalanced Europe?

Answer: Some countries could dominate the others militarily and economically

Slide 46

The End

These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.

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