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Microbiology Chapter 22-26 Case Study

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Question 12 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.Explain why it is rare for healthy people with normal immune systems to have bacterial bloodinfections.Healthy people with normal immune systems rarely have bacterial blood infections due to thefact that the uncompromised immune system plays a good role in preventing bacteria from thriving in the blood. The presence of complement proteins facilitates the destruction of bacteria when they get into the bloodstream of a healthy human. In addition phagocytes can chew up the bacterial cells before they can do damage in their target cells. Finally, bacteria that escape the aforementioned processes are dealt with via the cell-mediated processes instigated by macrophages.Question 22 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.Describe the action of the diphtheria toxin.The diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin that is capable of inhibiting the synthesis of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells by targeting the elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Its mechanism of action is similar to that of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) which also inhibits the synthesis of protein in cells. The diphtheria toxin is also acts as a catalyst that transfers the ADP ribose (ADPR) from NAD to EF-2, resulting in cessation of the protein elongation process. A single molecule of the toxin is capable of killing any eukaryotic cell.Question 32 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.

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