1 Zuzshura

Microbiology Chapter 22-26 Case Study

1. Bluestone CD, Stool SE, Kenna MA. Pediatric Otolaryngology. 3rd ed. United States of America: W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia; 1996.

2. Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, Krause CJ, Richardson MA, Schuller DE. Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis (MO): Mosby-Yearbook, Inc; 1998.

3. Proctor B. Chronic otitis media and mastoiditis. In: Paparella MM, Shumrich DA, Gluckman JL, Meyerhoff WL, editors. Otolaryngology. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders Company; 1991. pp. 1349–1375.

4. WHO. Report by the Director General Prevention of Deafness and Hearing Impairment. Geneva(CH): World Health Organisation; 1986. Document A39/14.

5. Roland PS. Chronic suppurative otitis media: a clinical overview. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81(8 Suppl 1):8–10.[PubMed]

6. Kenna MA, Rosane BA, Bluestone CD. Medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media without cholesteatoma in children. Am J Otol. 1993;14(5):469–473.[PubMed]

7. Arguedas A, Loaiza C, Herrera JF, Mohs E. Antimicrobial therapy for children with chronic suppurative otitis media without cholesteatoma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994;13(10):878–882.[PubMed]

8. Morris PS. Management of otitis media in a high risk population. Aust Fam Physician. 1998;27(11):1021–1029.[PubMed]

9. Browning GG, Merchant SN, Kelly G, et al. In: Chronic otitis media. Scott-Brown’s Otorhinolaryngology. 7th edition. Gleeson M, Browning GG, Bruton MJ, Clarke R, Hibbert J, Jones SN, Lund VJ, Luxon LM, Watkinson JC, editors. Vol. 3. United Kingdom (UK): Edward Arnold (Publisher); Ltd; 2008. p. 3410. Part 19 chapter 237c.

10. Aslam MA, Ahmed Z, Azim R. Microbiology and drug sensitivity patterns of chronic suppurative otitis media. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004;14(8):459–461.[PubMed]

11. Iqbal S, Udaipurwala I, Hasan A, Shafiq M, Mughal S. Chronic suppurative otitis media: disease pattern and drug sensitivity. J Surg Pak. 2006;11(1):17–19.

12. de Miguel MI, Del Rosario QC, Bolaños RM, Ramos MA. Aetiology and therapeutic considerations in chronic otitis media. Analysis of a 5 year period. Acta Otorrinolaringológica Esp. 2005;56(10):459–462.[PubMed]

13. Fischer AL, Stockel J, Townsend J. Sampling and sample size determination Handbook for family planning operations Research and Design 2nd edNew York (NY)The population council; 1983. 45

14. Araoye MO. Non response and sampling determination. In: research methodology with statistics for health and social sciences. 1st edition. Ilorin (NG): Nathadex publisher; 2003. pp. 115–122.

15. Lasisi OA, Suleiman OA, Afolabi OA. Socioeconomic status and hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media in Nigeria. Ann of Trop Paed. 2007;27(4):291–296.[PubMed]

16. Ologe FE, Nwawolo CC. Chronic suppurative otitis media in school pupils in Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2003;80(3):130–134.[PubMed]

17. WHO/CIBA Foundation Workshop. Prevention of hearing impairment from chronic otitis media. London (UK): WHO; 1998.

18. Ologe FE, Nwawolo CC. Prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) among school children in a rural community in Nigeria. Nig Postgrad Med J. 2002;9(2):63–66.[PubMed]

19. Cheesbrough M. Medical Laboratory Manuals for Tropical Countries. II. New York (USA): Microbiology Cambridge University Press; 1984.

20. WMA. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subject. 7. Vol. 15. Edinburgh: 52nd WMA General Assembly; 2008. pp. 1–7.

21. Brunton S. Treating community-acquired bacterial respiratory tract infections: update on etiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial therapy. J Fam Pract. 2005;54(4):357–364.[PubMed]

22. Cappelletty D. Microbiology of bacterial respiratory infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17(8Suppl):S55–61. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199808001-00002. [PubMed]

23. Leiberman A, Dagan R, Leibovitz E, Yagupsky P, Fliss DM. The bacteriology of the nasopharynx in childhood. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;49(Suppl 1):S151–153.[PubMed]

24. Laufer AS, Metlay JP, Gent JF, Fennie KP, Kong Y, Pettigrew MM. Microbial communities of the upper respiratory tract and otitis media in children. MBio. 2011;2(1):e00245–10. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00245-10.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Bakari AA, Adoga AA, Afolabi OA, Kodiya AM, Ahmad BM. Pattern of chronic suppurative otitis media at national ear care center, Kaduna. J Med Tropics. 2010;12:22–25.

26. Afolabi OA, Salaudeen AG, Ologe FE, Nwabuisi, Nwawolo CC. Pattern of bacterial isolates in the middle ear discharge of patients with chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary hospital in North central. Nigeria African Health Sciences. 2012;12(3):362–367.[PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Ibekwe AO. Chronic suppurative otitis media in Nigerian children. J Paediatrics. 1985;12:17–19.

28. Rahman US, Faktoo AQ, Ahmad B. A study on disease prevalence in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir. JK-Practitioner. 2004;11(4):284–290.

29. Chang J, Lee S-H, Choi J, Im GJ, Jung HH. Nasopharynx as a Microbiologic Reservoir in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: Preliminary Study. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;4(3):122–125. doi: 10.3342/ceo.2011.4.3.122.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Browning GG, Gatehouse S. The prevalence of middle ear disease in the adult British population. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1992;17(4):317–321.[PubMed]

31. Xu Q, Almudervar A, Casey JR, Pichichero ME. Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Interactions in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(11):1738–1745. doi: 10.3201/eid1811.111904.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Oni AA, Bakare RA, Nwaorgu OGB, Ogunkunle MO, Toki RA. Bacterial agents of discharging ears and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in children in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2001;20(2):131–135.[PubMed]

33. Gibson PG, Stuart JE, Wlodarczyk J, Olson LG, Hensley MJ. Nasal inflammation and chronic ear disease in Australian Aboriginal children. J Paediatr Child Health. 1996;32(2):143–147.[PubMed]

34. Brobby GW. The discharging ear in the tropics. A guide to diagnosis and management in a district hospital. Trop Doct. 1992;22(1):10–13.[PubMed]

35. Ito K, Ito Y, Mizuta K, Ogawa H, Suzuki T, Miyata H, et al. Bacteriology of chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and paranasal mucopyocele in Japan. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(Suppl 2):S214–219. doi: 10.1093/clinids/20.Supplement_2.S214.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Lasisi OA, Fawole OF, Usman MA, Sobode MO. Case management of otitis media among GPs in South West Nigeria. Nigerian Med Practit. 2003;43(1):17–19.

37. Nawabuisi C, Ologe FE. Pathogenic agents of chronic suppurative otitis media in Ilorin, Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2002;79(4):202–205.[PubMed]

38. Da Lilly-Tariah OB. Assesment for modalities for treatment of otorrhea in active phase of simple chronic suppurative otitis media in Jos University Teaching Hospital. Nig J of Otorhinolarygol. 2005;2(1):22–26.

39. Konno M, Baba S, Mikawa H, Hara K, Matsumoto F, Kaga K, et al. Study of nasopharyngeal bacterial flora. Variations in nasopharyngeal bacterial flora in schoolchildren and adults when administered antimicrobial agents. J Infect Chemother. 2007;13(4):235–354.[PubMed]

40. Gunnarsson RK, Holm SE, Soderstrom M. The prevalence of potential pathogenic bacteria in nasopharyngeal samples from healthy children and adults Scand. J Prim Health Care. 1998;16(1):13–17.[PubMed]

Question 12 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.Explain why it is rare for healthy people with normal immune systems to have bacterial bloodinfections.Healthy people with normal immune systems rarely have bacterial blood infections due to thefact that the uncompromised immune system plays a good role in preventing bacteria from thriving in the blood. The presence of complement proteins facilitates the destruction of bacteria when they get into the bloodstream of a healthy human. In addition phagocytes can chew up the bacterial cells before they can do damage in their target cells. Finally, bacteria that escape the aforementioned processes are dealt with via the cell-mediated processes instigated by macrophages.Question 22 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.Describe the action of the diphtheria toxin.The diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin that is capable of inhibiting the synthesis of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells by targeting the elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Its mechanism of action is similar to that of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) which also inhibits the synthesis of protein in cells. The diphtheria toxin is also acts as a catalyst that transfers the ADP ribose (ADPR) from NAD to EF-2, resulting in cessation of the protein elongation process. A single molecule of the toxin is capable of killing any eukaryotic cell.Question 32 ptsAnswers should be about 50-100 words in length and in your own words.

Leave a Comment


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *