1 Fezshura

Andrina Essay



The project of publishing these essays here on the O.P.O. website (www.o-p-o.net) was begun February 14, 2003 and completed February 25, 2004. The essays were selected by the participating organizations and the copyrights on them belong to the authors, some of whom have already been contacted for publication of their essays elsewhere. The email addresses of authors and the URLs for the websites of most organizations are included. The essays are published here as "pdf" files, which are quite difficult to alter but easy to print out. If one does not already have an Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free copy can be downloaded easily from:


http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html

Non-Western European language users should please note the "International Options" on the download page of the Adobe software for Asian, Middle Eastern, as well as Central and Eastern European language add-ons. In all, there are fifty-three (53) essays from twenty-five (25) nations of the Asia-Pacific, Central and Eastern European, Latin American, North American, and Western European regions of Earth. English, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, and Korean have been used. Thanks are due Dr. Kirk Besmer and Mr. Daniel Marcelle for their computer expertise in this project.

  • Pedro M. S. Alves-"Sprache und Kommunikation: Eine ph�nomenologische Interpretation"�Essay 6
  • Elizabeth A. Behnke-"Embodiment Work for the Victims of Violation: In Solidarity with the Community of the Shaken"�Essay 5
  • Prasenjit Biswas-"Historicizing Reason: Husserl�s Transcendental Phenomenology"�Essay 52
  • Martin Cajthaml-"Europa als Sorge f�r die Seele"�Essay 19
  • Ivan Chvat�k-"The Heretical Conception of the European Heritage in the Late Essays of Jan Patocka"�Essay 46
  • Cristian Ciocan-"Sur le concept de pulsion (Trieb) chez Heidegger" � Essay 48
  • Richard A. Cohen-"'Political Monotheism:' Levinas on Politics, Ethics and Religion"�Essay 22
  • Ion Copoeru-"Constitution originaire et h�t�rog�n�it� dans la ph�nom�nologie husserlienne"�Essay 20
  • Steven Crowell-"Jan Patocka and the Phenomenological Research Program"�Essay 16
  • L�szl� Cs�k-"How to Use Other People's Concepts" � Essay 27
  • Natalie Depraz-"La �double attention�: pour une pratique ph�nom�nologique de l'antinomie"�
    Essay 49
  • Stuart Devenish-"Teaching Phenomenology in Regional Australia: Needs, Resources & Opportunities" � Essay 32
  • Madalina Diaconu-"The Rebellion of the 'Lower' Senses: A Phenomenological Aesthetics of Touch, Smell, and Taste" � Essay 7
  • John J. Drummond-"The Political Role of the Philosopher" � Essay 11
  • Lester Embree-"Reflective Analysis in and of Social Psychology: A Model for Interdisciplinary Phenomenology" � Essay 10
  • Martin Endress-"The Concept of Responsiveness and the Understanding of the Other" � Essay 29
  • Jos� Ruiz Fern�ndez-"Kantian Euclidean Space and Husserlian Material Ontologies" � Essay 45
  • Daniel Fidel Ferrer-"Heidegger and the Purpose of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit" � Essay 39
  • Shaun Gallagher-"Neurophenomenological Research on Embodied Experience" � Essay 41
  • HAMAUZU, Shinji�"From Ideas II to Nature and Spirit" � Essay 3
  • Klaus Held-"M�glichkeiten und Grenzen interkultureller Verst�ndigung" � Essay 1
  • Burt C. Hopkins-"Husserl's Epoch�: Theory, Praxis, or Something in Between?" � Essay 17
  • Julia V. Iribarne-"Contributions to the Phenomenology of Dreams" � Essay 28
  • Domenico Jervolino-"Patocka: der negative Platonismus und die Idee Europas" � Essay 40
  • Andrina Tonkli Komel-"Kritische Verantwortlichkeit als Antwort auf die Krise und die epochale Frage der Ph�nomenologie" � Essay 15
  • Dean Komel-"Das Traditionsverst�ndnis und die technowissenschaftliche Mobilisierung"� Essay 9
  • KWAN, Tze-wan-"Subject and Person as two Self-Images of Modern Man: Some Cross-Cultural Perspectives" � Essay 36
  • LAU, Kwok-ying-"Jan Patocka: Critical Consciousness and Non-Eurocentric Philosopher of the Phenomenological Movement" � Essay 43
  • Len Lawler-Essence and Language: The Rupture in Merleau-Ponty's Philosophy" � Essay 8
  • Rosemary Rizo-Patron Lerner-"The Intuitive Foundations of Rationality" � Essay 53
  • Paul Majkut-"Thao�s Smile: Phenomenology and Non-European Thought" � Essay 50
  • Ullrich Melle-"Short History of the Husserl-Archives and Status Report on the Edition of Husserl�s Work" � Essay 35
  • James Mensch-"Givenness and Alterity" � Essay 2
  • Viktor Molchanov-Erfahrung, Naivit�t und Selbstkritik der Ph�nomenologie: Unterwegs zum nicht-aggressiven Bewusstsein" � Essay 18
  • Josef Moural-"Husserl and the Future: Temporality, Historicity, and Responsibility in His Later Work" � Essay 13
  • Shannon Mussett-"Expressions of Negativity: Simone de Beauvoir�s Response to Hegelian Freedom" � Essay 34
  • NASU, Hisashi-"A Schutzian Approach to the Problem of Equality-Inequality" � Essay 42
  • Marilyn Nissim-Sabat-"Phenomenology, Psychology, and the World: Towards a Manifesto"�
    Essay 25
  • Francesc Perenya Blasi-"Lebensphilosophie und wissenschaftliche Philosophie" � Essay 33
  • Phenomenology Roundtable-"Mission Statement" � Essay 38
  • Robert Pilat-"The Transcendental and Naturalistic Approach to Experience" � Essay 37
  • Yvanka B. Raynova-"Vers une ph�nom�nologie pr�sente et vivante. Le tournant de Maurice Merleau-Ponty" � Essay 30
  • Javier San Martin-"Epoch� und Selbstversenkung Der Anfang der Philosophie" � Essay 14
  • Hans Rainer Sepp-"Homogenization without Violence? A Phenomenology of Interculturality following Husserl" � Essay 21
  • Tatiana Shchyttsova-"Das menschliche Ereignis in der Philosophie von M. Bachtin" � Essay 24
  • Hans-Georg Soeffner and Dirk T�nzler-"Figurative Politik. Prolegomena zu einer Kultursoziologie politischen Handelns" � Essay 26
  • SON, Dong-Hyun-"Zur Weltstruktur des koreanischen Gesellschaftslebens der Gegenwart"�Essay 12
  • Ilja Srubar-"Lob des Archivs" � Essay 31
  • Anthony J. Steinbock-"Hoping against Hope" � Essay 23
  • Sirkkaliisa Usvamaa-Routila-"Form and Counterform in Graphic Design: A Phenomenological Approach " � Essay 47
  • Olga Vishnyakova-"The Place of the Human in the Philosophies of Scheler and Berdyaev"�Essay 51
  • Roberto Walton-"The Horizons of Cultural Objects" � Essay 44
  • Osborn P. Wiggins�"Rebuilding Reality: A Phenomenology of Aspects of Chronic Schizophrenia" � Essay 4

  1. ESSAY 1 - "Möglichkeiten und Grenzen interkultureller Verständigung"
    Klaus HELD (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper in German
    Abstract and Paper in English
    Photo of Held
  2. ESSAY 2 - "Givenness and Alterity"
    James MENSCH (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Mensch
  3. ESSAY 3 - "From Ideas II to Nature and Spirit"
    HAMAUZU, Shinji (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper in English
    Abstract and Paper in Japanese
    Photo of HAMAUZU
  4. ESSAY 4 - "Rebuilding Reality: A Phenomenology of Aspects of Chronic Schizophrenia"
    Osborn P. WIGGINS, et al. (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Wiggins
  5. ESSAY 5 - "Embodiment Work for the Victims of Violation: In Solidarity with the Community of the Shaken"
    Elizabeth A. BEHNKE (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Behnke
  6. ESSAY 6 - "Sprache und Kommunikation: Eine phänomenologische Interpretation"
    Pedro M. S. ALVES (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Alves
  7. ESSAY 7 - "The Rebellion of the 'Lower' Senses: A Phenomenological Aesthetics of Touch, Smell, and Taste"
    Madalina DIACONU (14 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Diaconu
  8. ESSAY 8 - "Essence and Language: The Rupture in Merleau-Ponty's Philosophy"
    Len LAWLER (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Lawler
  9. ESSAY 9 - "Das Traditionsverständnis und die technowissenschaftliche Mobilisierung"
    Dean KOMEL (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of D. Komel
  10. ESSAY 10 - "Reflective Analysis in and of Social Psychology: A Model for Interdisciplinary Phenomenology"
    Lester EMBREE (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper in English
    Abstract and Paper in Portuguese
    Photo of Embree
  11. ESSAY 11 - "The Political Role of the Philosopher"
    John J. DRUMMOND (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Drummond
  12. ESSAY 12 - "Zur Weltstruktur des koreanischen Gesellschaftslebens der Gegenwart"
    SON, Dong-Hyun (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of SON
  13. ESSAY 13 - "Husserl and the Future: Temporality, Historicity, and Responsibility in His Later Work"
    Josef MOURAL (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Moural
  14. ESSAY 14 - "Epoché und Selbstversenkung Der Anfang der Philosophie"
    Javier SAN MARTIN (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper in German
    Abstract and Paper in Spanish
    Photo of San Martin
  15. ESSAY 15 - "Kritische Verantwortlichkeit als Antwort auf die Krise und die epochale Frage der Phänomenologie"
    Andrina Tonkli KOMEL (28 February 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of A. Komel
  16. ESSAY 16 - "Jan Patocka and the Phenomenological Research Program"
    Steven CROWELL (15 March 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Crowell
  17. ESSAY 17 - "Husserl's Epoché: Theory, Praxis, or Something in Between?"
    Burt C. HOPKINS (15 March 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Hopkins
  18. ESSAY 18 - "Erfahrung, Naivität und Selbstkritik der Phänomenologie: Unterwegs zum nicht-aggressiven Bewusstsein"
    Viktor MOLCHANOV (2 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Molchanov
  19. ESSAY 19 - "Europa als Sorge für die Seele"
    Martin CAJTHAML (2 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Cajthaml
  20. ESSAY 20 - "Constitution originaire et hétérogénéité dans la phénoménologie husserlienne"
    Ion COPOERU (2 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Copoeru
  21. ESSAY 21 - "Homogenization without Violence? A Phenomenology of Interculturality Following Husserl"
    Hans Rainer SEPP (2 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Rainer Sepp
  22. ESSAY 22 - "'Political Monotheism:' Levinas on Politics, Ethics and Religion"
    Richard A. COHEN (14 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Cohen
  23. ESSAY 23 - "Hoping against Hope"
    Anthony J. STEINBOCK (14 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Steinbock
  24. ESSAY 24 - "Das menschliche Ereignis in der Philosophie von M. Bachtin"
    Tatiana SHCHYTTSOVA (14 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Shchyttsova
  25. ESSAY 25 - "Phenomenology, Psychology, and the World: Towards a Manifesto"
    Marilyn NISSIM-SABAT (14 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Nissim-Sabat
  26. ESSAY 26 - "Figurative Politik. Prolegomena zu einer Kultursoziologie politischen Handelns"
    Hans-Georg SOEFFNER and Dirk TÄNZLER (25 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Soeffner
    Photo of Tänzler
  27. ESSAY 27 - "How to Use Other People's Concepts"
    László CSÁK (14 April 2003)
    Abstract and Paper In English
    Abstract and Paper In Hungarian
    Photo of Csák
  28. ESSAY 28 - "Contributions to the Phenomenology of Dreams"
    Julia V. IRIBARNE(25 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Iribarne
  29. ESSAY 29 - "The Concept of Responsiveness and the Understanding of the Other"

    Martin ENDRESS (28 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Endress
  30. ESSAY 30 - "Vers une phénoménologie présente et vivante. Le tournant de Maurice Merleau-Ponty"
    Yvanka B. RAYNOVA (28 April 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Raynova
  31. ESSAY 31 - "Lob des Archivs"
    Ilja SRUBAR (16 May 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Srubar
  32. ESSAY 32 - "Teaching Phenomenology in Regional Australia: Needs, Resources & Opportunities"
    Stuart DEVENISH (16 May 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Devenish
  33. ESSAY 33 - "Lebensphilosophie und wissenschaftliche Philosophie"
    Francesc PERENYA Blasi (27 October 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Perenya
  34. ESSAY 34 - "Expressions of Negativity: Simone de Beauvoir�s
    Response to Hegelian Freedom"
    Shannon MUSSETT (27 October 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Mussett
  35. ESSAY 35 - "Short History of the Husserl-Archives and
    Status Report on the Edition of Husserl�s Work"
    Ullrich MELLE (27 November 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Melle
  36. ESSAY 36 - "Subject and Person as two Self-Images of Modern Man:
    Some Cross-Cultural Perspectives"
    KWAN, Tze-wan (27 November 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Kwan
  37. Essay 37 - "The Transcendental and Naturalistic Approach to Experience"
    Robert PILAT (22 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Pilat
  38. ESSAY 38 - "Mission Statement"
    Phenomenology Roundtable (23 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Spokesperson (M. Nissim-Sabat)
  39. Essay 39 - "Heidegger and the Purpose of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit"
    Daniel Fidel FERRER (23 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Ferrer
  40. Essay 40 - "Patocka: der negative Platonismus und die Idee Europas"
    Domenico JERVOLINO (23 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Jervolino
  41. Essay 41 - "Neurophenomenological Research on Embodied Experience"
    Shaun GALLAGHER (26 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Gallagher
  42. Essay 42 - "A Schutzian Approach to the Problem of Equality-Inequality"
    NASU, Hisashi (28 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Nasu
  43. Essay 43 - "Jan Patocka: Critical Consciousness and Non-Eurocentric Philosopher of the Phenomenological Movement"
    LAU, Kwok-ying (28 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of LAU
  44. ESSAY 44 - "The Horizons of Cultural Objects"
    Roberto WALTON (30 December 2003)

    Abstract and Paper
  45. ESSAY 45 - "Kantian Euclidean Space and Husserlian Material Ontologies"
    José Ruiz FERNÁNDEZ (5 January 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Fernández
  46. ESSAY 46 - "The Heretical Conception of the European Heritage
    in the Late Essays of Jan Patocka"
    Ivan CHVATÍK (7 January 2004)

    Abstract and Paper in English
    Abstract and Paper in Czechoslovakian
    Abstract and Paper in German
    Photo of Chvatík
  47. ESSAY 47 - "Form and Counterform in Graphic Design: A Phenomenological Approach "
    Sirkkaliisa USVAMAA-ROUTILA (3 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Usvamaa-Routila
  48. ESSAY 48 - "Sur le concept de pulsion (Trieb) chez Heidegger"
    Cristian CIOCAN (3 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Ciocan
  49. ESSAY 49 - "La �double attention�: pour une pratique ph�nom�nologique de l'antinomie"
    Natalie DEPRAZ (25 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Depraz
  50. ESSAY 50 - "Thao�s Smile: Phenomenology and Non-European Thought"
    Paul MAJKUT (25 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Majkut
  51. ESSAY 51 - "The Place of the Human in the Philosophies of Scheler and Berdyaev"
    Olga VISHNYAKOVA (25 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Vishnyakova
  52. ESSAY 52 - "Historicizing Reason: Husserl�s Transcendental Phenomenology"
    Prasenjit BISWAS (25 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Biswas
  53. ESSAY 53 - "The Intuitive Foundations of Rationality"
    Rosemary RIZO-PATRON LERNER (25 February 2004)

    Abstract and Paper
    Photo of Rizo-Patron Lerner


O.P.O. 2003
Last Updated: June 17, 2004

The short story “Andrina”, by George Mackay Brown introduces the idea of betrayal right from the beginning. The writer successfully uses a number of techniques to convey this idea, examples of these techniques being; characterisation, structure, narration and the writer’s use of language. The reader easily becomes involved with the story, due to Brown’s excellent use of said techniques and portrayal of the characters.

The story focuses on the protagonist, Torvald, as he is visited by the mysterious Andrina who cares for him throughout winter. However, when Andrina fails to appear after several days, Torvald – realising he knows nothing about the girl – goes in search of her, only to find nobody else on the island has any knowledge of her existence. The inner story is then introduced as Torvald starts to think about the past he refused to inform Andrina of. The inner story, narrated in third person, focuses on Torvald’s past and we find out he had a brief summer romance with a woman named Sigrid. Torvald refused to tell Andrina about this romance as he is ashamed of what he did – he left Sigrid after finding out she was pregnant. The outer story is then reintroduced as Torvald reads a letter, sent to him by Sigrid, and discovers that not only is Andrina his granddaughter but she actually passed away before she started visiting him. This leads the reader to believe that Andrina visited Torvald in spirit form.

George Mackay Brown portrays Andrina and Torvald’s relationship to be a very affectionate one. The characterisation of Torvald shows an old man who is in need of companionship to save him from loneliness. Andrina comes across as a very caring person as we see the things she does for Torvald, we assume, everyday. We also get to see how much Torvald needs her:

“She lights…..sets the peat fire….she fusses…..fills a stone hot-water bottle…”

The reader gets the idea that this is Andrina and Torvald’s daily routine during the winter. Through words such as “lights”, “sets” and “fills”, we see how much Andrina does for Torvald, leading us to believe that she cares a great deal for him and shows that they have a caring relationship. This is effective in showing Torvald’s need and disappointment towards Andrina as without her, Torvald probably wouldn’t be able to cope during the winter and would be extremely lonely. He feels letdown by Andrina when she fails to appear as he no longer has anyone to care for him, and feels she has left him in his time of need; he has the flu. The reader again sees how much Torvald needs Andrina when he describes how he would feel if he saw her:

“A few words from her would be like a bell-buoy to a sailor lost in a hopeless fog”

Torvald is being overly dramatic here as he is comparing his situation to one that could mean life or death. The dramatic image suggests that Andrina is saving Torvald, or could save him from being lost and lonely, just as a bell-buoy would save a stranded sailor. He needs her to guide him, like a bell-buoy would a sailor.

This image allows the reader to relate to Torvald’s need of Andrina as he is comparing him not having Andrina to a life or death situation, which gives us the obvious thought that he must desperately need or – or feel like he does. The fact that Torvald feels like he needs Andrina so badly intensifies his feelings of betrayal, as he feels that, without her, he wouldn’t be able to cope. Torvald’s sense of betrayal is heightened by the passing of time. He begins to count down the days, hoping Andrina will appear:

“She did not come again on the third afternoon”

This single paragraph stands alone to mimic and emphasise Torvald’s isolation. The words “she did not come” are repeated several times in the paragraph before this single one. This shows a sense of longing and monotony; he is just sitting around day-by-day waiting on Andrina to come back. This is effective in helping the reader see Torvald’s betrayal as he feels like she no longer cares about him and is desperate to see her again. The reader gets the idea that Torvald’s feels like Andrina can no longer be bothered caring for him and has decided that she doesn’t want anything to do with him – which makes him feel betrayed as she has just left him without any hints or explanations. Torvald’s feelings of betrayal are ironic given the way he treated Sigrid all those years ago.

The writer’s cyclical structure of the short story successfully explores the theme of betrayal; the outer story exploring Andrina’s betrayal of Torvald, the inner story exploring Torvald’s betrayal of Sigrid. Torvald is a man who is quite selfish and very quick to judge. The reader sees this from the outer story and then again from the inner story:

“Love had been killed but many ghosts had been awakened.”

The past is beginning to come back to haunt Torvald at this point in the story. The words “Love had been killed” links to the inner story as it could refer to the killing of the love of Torvald and Sigrid. However, it could also be a metaphor for Torvald’s anger and feelings of betrayal towards Andrina at the fact that she has not been to see him in days. The words “many ghosts had been awakened” relates to the inner story as it suggests that Torvald is beginning to think a lot about his past with Sigrid, and the terrible things he did are coming back to haunt him. The words could also suggest that Andrina is one of the “ghosts” that have been awakened and has come back just so she can see Torvald.

The reader gets the impression that Torvald is feeling quite depressed at this point and that may be why he is beginning to think more about his past. This imagery and use of structure make the reader find it difficult to pity Torvald as he is acting extremely selfish, and the reader feels that Torvald is still being overly dramatic about Andrina as it doesn’t seem like she has betrayed him in any way – she had made no commitments to him so why should she continue going to visit him? Andrina is not the only person Torvald has ever felt betrayed him, Sigrid also betrayed him. Sigrid ended up pregnant with Torvald’s child. Many people would see this as inappropriate as the baby would be born out of wedlock which was seen as socially unacceptable back then. When he finds out, Torvald feel extremely betrayed and no longer wants to be with Sigrid:

“…at once the summertime spell was broken”

What first sounded like a magical, perfect relationship has now been destroyed. The words “spell was broken” suggest that whatever feelings Torvald had at the beginning – and during – he and Sigrid’s relationship are now no longer there. After this line the sentences become short and abrupt as we see Torvald’s reaction to Sigrid’s news. There is also a change in tone – to a much harsher one – as the short sentences, such as “He looked away” and “He thrust her away”, show how disgusted Torvald is. These lines contrast with the long flowing lines that came before the news, when everything was normal and the couple felt like they were the happiest people alive. Torvald’s behaviour disgusts the reader as he begins to act as if it is all Sigrid’s fault and that he played no part in it whatsoever, making him appear even more selfish that he did at first. Having seen Torvald’s sense of betrayal and his actual betrayal of his first love Sigrid the reader also recognises the sense of betrayal that Andrina must have felt as the story comes full circle and the contents of the letter are revealed:

“He must be a good person, that old sailor, ever to have been loved by you.”

Andrina’s statement is ironic as we know Torvald to be completely different from what she expects. Despite the statement being ironic the reader can see how much Andrina loves her Gran. Andrina expects the story of Torvald and Sigrid to end differently than what it does, this leaves her feeling betrayed when she finds out it doesn’t end happily as she expected the man her Gran loved to be someone caring. She is shocked to find out he abandoned her Gran at a time where she would have needed him.

Another way in which the theme of betrayal is further explored is through the writer’s use of narration and language. Brown uses both first person narrative and third person narrative to move between the inner and outer story:

“The boy and girl lived, it seemed, on each other’s heartbeats”

The third person narrative begins just like a fairy tale which leads the reader to believe that Torvald and Sigrid’s love affair will be perfect and end “happily ever after” – just like a fairytale. The fact that Brown describes Torvald and Sigrid to be living on “each other’s heartbeats” shows how deeply the couple feel for about one another. It is a very strong metaphor and suggests that one couldn’t live without the other, and it also ties back in with the idea of a fairytale style relationship making it seem like their could never be anything that could come between them. This is effective in changing the reader’s perception of Torvald as it makes him seem like more a romantic and selfless character, and the reader can see he once cared for someone other than himself. Similarly the use of poetic language in the inner story also reinforces the real act of betrayal by Torvald against his first love Sigrid:

“a tale soaked in the light…”

The poetic language and the symbolism convey the strength a power of their love and suggest to the reader that their relationship is magical. This is effective in making the betrayal of Sigrid all the more cruel as it is hard to imagine how Torvald could ruin the loving relationship he and Sigrid had just because he found out she was pregnant. The reader finds it hard to believe how a couple that cared so strongly for one another could not work together and save their relationship when they find out the news.

The theme of betrayal is introduced right from the beginning of the short story, “Andrina”, by George Mackay Brown. He successfully conveys this theme through a number of techniques and has the reader becoming thoroughly involved in the story. This universal theme has many strands in this short story giving it wide understanding, and is something that many people for generations will be able to relate to.

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