1 Malagal

Moon Hindi Essay On Paropkar

--1.22.170.196 ०९:२०, १८ जुलाई २०१५ (UTC)वलिताक्षराणि1
अग्निशेषमृणशेषं शत्रुशेषं तथैव च |
पुन: पुन: प्रवर्धेत तस्माच्शेषं न कारयेत् ||

If a fire, a loan, or an enemy continues to exist even to a small extent, it will grow again and again; so do not let any one of it continue to exist even to a small extent.

यदि कोई आग, ऋण, या शत्रु अल्प मात्रा अथवा न्यूनतम सीमा तक भी अस्तित्व में बचा रहेगा तो बार बार बढ़ेगा ; अत: इन्हें थोड़ा सा भी बचा नही रहने देना चाहिए । इन तीनों को सम्पूर्ण रूप से समाप्त ही कर डालना चाहिए ।


पृथिव्यां त्रीणि रत्नानि जलमन्नं सुभाषितम् |
मूढै: पाषाणखण्डेषु रत्नसंज्ञा प्रदीयते ||

There are three jewels on earth: water, food, and adages. Fools, however, regard pieces of rocks as jewels.

पृथ्वी पर तीन ही रत्न हैं जल अन्न और अच्छे वचन । फिर भी मूर्ख पत्थर के टुकड़ों को रत्न कहते हैं फि

वन्य जीव शेर का राज्याभिषेक (पवित्र जल छिड़काव) तथा कतिपय कर्मकांड के संचालन के माध्यम से ताजपोशी नहीं करते किन्तु वह अपने कौशल से ही कार्यभार और राजत्व को सहजता व सरलता से धारण कर लेता है

101-200[सम्पाद्यताम्]

101

चन्दनं शीतलं लोके चंदनादपि चंद्रमा: |
चन्द्रचन्दनयोर्मध्ये शीतला साधुसंगत: ||

sandalwood is pleasant (cool), moon (or moon light) is more pleasant than sandal. (but) company of a good person (sAdhu) is pleasant then both moon and sandal.

Literal meaning of word 'shItalah' is cool/cold, in this context cool means something which is pleasant.

102

समानी व: आकूति: समाना )दयानि व: |
समानम् अस्तु वो मन: यथा व: सुसहा असति ||

यथा व: सुसहा असति ||

ऋग्वेद

This is the last 'shloka' in the Rigveda. It states - Let your conclusions be ONE (or be alike), Let your hearts be the same (or be alike) [So that "everyone" feels for the same particular bad/ill in the society in the same intensity. It may be the common experience that not all feel for the same problem in the 'intensity' that we as individual may feel for that. Due to this there may be lack of 'collective' efforts to solve that problem]. Let your minds think alike/similar. May all these factors make your organisational-power an impressive one. This 'shloka' can be called as an 'sanghatan-sukta' i.e. guidelines for building an impressive organisation/nation.

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak had ended his book 'Geeta Rahasya' by this 'shloka'.

103

कर्तव्यम् आचरं कामम् अकर्तव्यम् अनाचरम् |
तिष्ठति प्राकॄताचारो य स: आर्य इति : ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ज्ञख्8230; योग वसिष्ठ

A person who does the things which are to be done and who doesn't do the things which are not to be done; a person who stands by tradition ("prakrutacharo"), is called "Arya".

The term "Arya" is used to refer to elder or respectable person in India. This subhashita give some of the characteristics of 'Arya'. A person who does the things which he is supposed to do i.e. good things, and does not do any bad, can be called Arya.. In short, the one who obeys dharma is Arya. 'Arya' does not reflect any race.

104

परो अपि हितवान् बन्धु: ,बन्धु: अपि अहित: पर: |
अहित: देहज: व्याधि: , हितम् आरण्यम् औषधम् ||

हितोपदेश

The person with whom we have no relation, but who helps us in our difficult times is our Real relative/brother. In contrast the person who may be our relative/brother (With whom we have blood relations) but who always does bad things for us should not be considered as our relative/brother. Just like a disease which is in our own body does so much harm to us while the medicinal plant which grows in forest far off does so much of good to us!

105

परस्परविरोधे तु वयं पंचश्चते शतम् |
परैस्तु विग्रहे प्राप्ते वयं पंचाधिकं शतम् ||

ज्ञख्8211;युधिष्ठीर

While fighting with each other, we are five and they are hundred. While fighting with others (enemy) we are hundred plus five.

This are words of yudhiShThIr (dharmarAja). In araNyaparva (i.e. when pANDava were in vanawasa i.e. in jungle for 12 yrs), pandava got a news that kaurava are under attack from gandharvas and were loosing the battle. In fact gandharvas had defeated Kauravas and imprisoned them. That time, bhIma's opinion was, not to help Kaurava, because they were paNDava's enemy. bheema was happy that their job was done by gandharvas. That time yudhiShThIr said that even if Kaurava were enemies, they were their brothers, and paNDava must help them in that crisis.

This is an excellent example laid by yudhiShThIr before us. If we turn our pages of history, many places we find that our rajas were fighting with each other, and they even helped outside invaders to knock down other Indian rajas. And that was major cause of success of invaders.

In todays contex, we must know who is "ours" and who is not.

106

व्यसने मित्रपरीक्षा शूरपरीक्षा रणाङ्गणे भवति |
विनये भॄत्यपरीक्षा दानपरीक्षाच दुर्भिक्षे ||

Friendship of a friend is tested in our bad times, the warrior's heroism is tested in a war, a servant's test lies in his good attitude towards the owner and a donor's test is at the time of drought. The point explained here is that the person who donates wealth/food even at the time of a drought, i.e. at the times when the food is a scarcity, is a real donor. If we do not live up to our expectations at the tough times then there is no use of what we stand for.

107

राजा राष्ट्रकॄतं पापं राज्ञाम्प;: पापं पुरोहित: |
भर्ता च स्त्रीकॄतं पापं शिष्यपापं गुरू: तथा ||

If a country goes in a wrong way/ does a sin then the king should be held responsible. If king commits a sin then his advisors/ministers should be held responsible. If a women does a wrong thing then her husband should be held responsible and if a student ('shishya') commits a sin then his teacher ('guru') should be held responsible.

108

पुस्तकस्था तु या विद्या परहस्तगतं धनम् |
कार्यकाले समुत्पन्ने न सा विद्या न तद् धनम् ||

The knowledge which is residing in the book and one's wealth which is in possession of some other person is of no use at all. At the time of it's need they will not be of any help for the person.

109

अधमा: धनमिच्छन्ति धनं मानं च मध्यमा: |
उत्तमा: मानमिच्छन्ति मानो हि महताम् धनम् ||

An inferior person's desire is money. An average person will desire money and respect. A great person desires respect (and not Money). Respect is superior to money.

110

ये च मूढतमा: लोके ये च बुद्धे: परं गता: |
ते एव सुखम् एधन्ते मध्यम: क्लिश्यते जन: ||

महाभारत 122528

Only two types of people are happy in this world. One who are foolish/dull and the others who are very much intelligent and knowledegble. All the other people in between these two limits are the only sufferers. The foolish/dull people do not understand the problem (or cannot grasp the problems) and the intelligent people have the solution for it! And therefore it is only left for the people in between them to keep crying for the problem because having known what it is still they cannot envision the path for it's complete eradication.

111

अतितॄष्णा न कर्तव्या तॄष्णां नैव परित्यजेत |
शनै: शनैश्च भोक्तव्यं स्वयं वित्तमुपार्जितम ||

Extreme desire should be avoided. but don't throw away desires. We should enjoy self earned wealth with control. This subhashita explains one of the specialties of our culture. You may find two extreme views about life in this world. There are a few groups who think that desire about anything is cause of sorrow in life. And desire causes degradation of a person. So it should be avoided totally. There are some groups which believe that we should try to satisfy all our desires... and that will bring happiness in life. The problem in first case is, it is very difficult to follow. And often these suppressed desires give rise to misbehavior of a person. In second case, it is obvious that, this view is not good for societal interest. Also desires can't be satisfied. if you fulfill one another would arise. Keeping this in mind our Rishis suggested midway between these two. one need not give away desires totally, but try to control them and satisfy them with some limit.

112

वॄथा वॄष्टि: समुद्रेषु, , वॄथा, तॄप्तेषु भोजनम् |
वॄथा दानं धनाढ्येषु, , वॄथा दीपो दिवाऽपि च ||

Rains over the sea are not of any use. Food for one, whose stomach is full, is waste. What's the use of donation to an affluent? Also, lighting a lamp during day is useless.

113

पिबन्ति नद्य: स्वयम् एव न अम्भ: स्वयं न खादन्ति फलानि वॄक्षा: |
न अदन्ति सस्यं खलु वारिवाहा परोपकाराय सतां विभूतय: ||

The rivers don't drink their own water. The trees don't eat their own fruits. The clouds don't eat the crops to which they give the water. The wealth of the good people ('sajjan') is really only for helping the others. (They themselves don't consume what they produce!)

114

क्रोधो वैवस्वतो राजा तॄष्णा वैतरणी नदी |
विद्या कामदुघा धेनु: सन्तोषो नन्दनं वनम् ||

|||शुक्रनीति

Anger is the King of Death (Yama), greed (desire) is the river VaitaraNI (in the Hell). (However)Knowledge is (like) the cow which fulfills all wishes (Kamdhenu), (and) bliss is the paradise.

115

लोभमूलानि पापानि संकटानि तथैव च |
लोभात्प्रवर्तते वैरं अतिलोभात्विनश्यति ||

Greed is a cause of sin ( a greedy person can do any sin to satisfy his greed) Greed is cause of calamity, greed gives rise to enmity (greedy person invites enemies) Greed destroys a person (a greedy persons life gets spoiled by his own deeds) .

116

धैर्य यस्य पिता क्षमा च जननी शान्ति: चिरं गेहिनी सत्यं सूनु: अयं दया च भगिनी भ्राता मन:संयम: |
शय्या भूमितलं दिश: अपि वसनं ज्ञाम्प;ानामॄतं भोजनम् एते यस्य कुटुम्बिन: वद सखे कस्माद् भयं योगिन: ||

A person for whom courage is his father, forgiveness (KshmA) is his mother, calmful mind is his wife, Truth is his son, compassion his sister and control of mind is his brother. And for whom this earth is a bed, the directions (dishA) like the cloths and the knowledge is his food. When all these make up his family then for which thing will that person be scared of? Isn't this a very unique suBAshit indeed? What else will the person need to overcome the challenges that may face him in his life?

117

महाजनस्य संसर्ग: कस्य नोन्नतिकारक: |
पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् ||

Company of great person is always beneficial. (see how) drop of water on lotus leaf appears like a pearl. (i.e.. it gains status similar to pearl) Hear Subhashitkar explains how useful it is to be with great persons.

118

मूर्खो न हि ददाति अर्थं नरो दारिद्रयशङ्कया |
प्राज्ञाम्प;: तु वितरति अर्थं नरो दारिद्रयशङ्कया ||

भोजप्रबंध

A unwise ('murkha') person hesitates to donate the wealth due to the fear of becoming poor in future. But due to the same fear (of becoming poor in future), a wise person wisely donates his wealth!

See how the same fear causes wise and unwise persons to behave differently! In conclusion the wise person donates his wealth thinking that in future if he becomes poor then he may loose the opportunity to donate. The implied meaning of the suBAshit may be that man should not fear for the transient things like wealth. Today it is there and tomorrow it may not be there. So donate it when you have it!

119

स्वभावो नोपदेशेन शक्यते कर्तुमन्यथा |
सुतप्तमपि पानीयं पुनर्गच्छति शीतताम् ||

One cannot change nature of a person by giving him a advice or telling him good things. (as even) If water is heated, after some time it again attains its normal temperature. Subhashit explains how difficult it is to change nature of a person. Everybody must have experienced this. If we find that a person needs to improve in certain thing, and try to explain that to him, may be he will accept it that time. But after some time you will find him back with all his traits. This behaviour is similar to water. water is normally cold. you can heat it to change its this usual properly. But after some time you will find that water is cold again.

120

यस्मिन् जीवति जीवन्ति बहव: स तु जीवति |
काकोऽपि किं न कुरूते चञ्च्वा स्वोदरपूरणम् ||

पंचतंत्र

If the 'living' of a person results in 'living' of many other persons, only then consider that person to have really 'lived'. Look even the crow fill it's own stomach by it's beak!! (There is nothing great in working for our own survival) I am not finding any proper adjective to describe how good this suBAshit is! The suBAshitkAr has hit at very basic question. What are all the humans doing ultimately? Working to feed themselves (and their family). So even a bird like crow does this! Infact there need not be any more explanation to tell what this suBAshit implies! Just the suBAshit is sufficient!!

121

दानेन तुल्यो विधिरास्ति नान्यो लोभोच नान्योस्ति रिपु: पॄथिव्या |
विभूषणं शीलसमं च नान्यत् सन्तोषतुल्यं धनमस्ति नान्यत् ||

There is no vidhi (ritual) which is as noble as donation. (People follow some rituals to get some "punya". this subhashit says that sharing your wealth with others is the best possible ritual.) There is no enemy as greed on this earth. (Greed gives rise to problems in life, that's why it is our biggest enemy) There is no other ornament like sheela (good character). (We use ornaments to adorn our body, but there is no ornament comparable to good character.) There is no wealth as satisfaction. (We earn wealth for being happy, but satisfaction is key to happiness.)

122

संरोहति अग्नीना दग्धं वनं परशुना हतम् |
वाचा दुरूज्ञग्त;ं बीभत्सं न संरोहति वाक्क्षतम् ||

महाभारत|

Bhismacharya says to Yudhistira, "The forest which gets destroyed due to the fire or due to the axe, will again grow in time. But the wound caused to the mind due to the bad and harsh words will never get healed".

Speak with compassion and soft tongue with all is the message of this suBAshit. The human mind is so soft that it doesn't forget even the smallest of insult/disgrace caused to it .

123

अहो दुर्जनसंसर्गात् मानहानि: पदे पदे |
पावको लोहसंगेन मुद्गरैरभिताड्यते ||

Wicked person's company is invitation to frequent insults. When gold is with iron and hammer, it gets beaten.

124

द्वौ अम्भसि निवेष्टव्यौ गले बद्ध्वा दॄढां शिलाम् |
धनवन्तम् अदातारम् दरिद्रं च अतपस्विनम् ||

महाभारत 53365

There are two types of people who should be pushed in deep water with heavy stones tied to their body! One who does not donate inspite of being rich and the other who does not work hard inspite of being poor !!

125

चिता चिन्तासमा हि उज्ञग्त;ा बिन्दुमात्रविशेषत: |
सजीवं दहते चिन्ता निर्जीवं दहते चिता ||

There is not much difference between 'chita' (pyre) and 'chinta' (Worry). ['chita' and 'chinta' differ only by a 'anusvaar'. Only those who understand the 'devnaagri' script can know what is a 'anusvaar'] The former will destroy (burn) a dead body and the later will burn/harm the living individual!!

126

अङ्गणवेदी वसुधा कुल्या जलधि: स्थली च पातालम् |
वाल्मिक: च सुमेरू: कॄतप्रतिज्ञाम्प;स्य धीरस्य ||

For a person who has a firm conviction (mind is firm (krutapratijnasya)), this earth is like a little garden, sea is like a small canal/dam, 'paatal' (there is no parallel concept in english) is like a picnic spot (ramya sthal) and the Meru mountain is like an ant's house ('vaarul')! This means that if you have a firm conviction, hurdles in the way do not mean much. you have ways to tackle them.

127

येषां न विद्या न तपो न दानं ज्ञाम्प;ानं न शीलं न गुणो न धर्म: |
ते मत्र्यलोके भुविभारभूता मनुष्यरूपेण मॄगाश्चरन्ति ||

A person who is not educated, who is not ready to work hard, who does not donate whatever he has, who does not have knowledge, who does not have a good character, good qualities and one who does not obey dharma, such a person on this earth is just a useless person, he is as good as any other animal. please see subhashit no 18 which also distinguishes between a human and other animals.

128

माता मित्रं पिता चेति स्वभावात् त्रतयं हितम् |
कार्यकारणतश्चान्ये भवन्ति हितबुद्धय: ||

Mother, father and friend are the one who think about our interests (well-being) in a very much natural manner. [It's part of their nature ('swaBAv').They think this without expecting any thing in return.] All others having the similar feelings towards us do so due to their personal benefits or any other reason [It is not part of their nature ('swaBAv')].

129

क: काल: कानि मित्राणि को देश: को व्ययागमौ |
कस्याहं का च मे शक्ति: इति चिन्त्यं मुहुर्मुहु: ||

ज्ञख्8211;चाणक्य

"How is situation around me (i.e. is it favourable or not)? who are (my) friends? how is condition in the country? what are the things for and against me (or what do I have and what I don't have)? who am I? what are my strengths?" one should always worry about these questions. Subhashitkar is suggesting us that we must be always alert and consider all this prior to any action.

130

वदनं प्रसादसदनं सदयं )दयं सुधामुचो वाच: |
करणं परोपकरणं येषां केषां न ते वन्द्या: ||

A person whose face is always charming/enthusiastic, his heart full of compassion, his speech like 'Amrut' (I think there is no equivalent word for 'Amrut' in english. Here it means sweet speech i.e. speech which will always give pleasure to the listener) and whose work is to always help the needy ('paropkAr'), then tell me for whom such a person will not be the most respected ('vandaneeya') one? Very small and practical points - if we are successful in imbibing these in ourselves then surely we will be the better humans than today!

131

अनाहूत: प्रविशति अपॄष्टो बहु भाषते |
अविश्वस्ते विश्वसिति मूढचेता नराधम: ||

|||विदुर

Subhashitkar has given some of the characteristics of a fool person here. He says, a fool person comes without invitation (he lands up anywhere even if he is not required i.e. he does not have self respect), talk even if not asked for (they have habit of poking his nose in other's business), and trusts a person who is not trustable (he is not able to evaluate others properly)

132

र्इशावास्यमिदं सर्वं यत् किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् |
तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा मा गॄध: कस्यस्विद् धनम् ||

र्इशोपनिषद् 1

This 'shloka' is from Ishavasya upanishad. Here I am giving two explanations of this shloka. One is from the book:- Sanskrit Subhashit Navnet, published by Jamnabai Narsee Adhyatmik trust. Another is from one article. This is a not a suBAshit as such but as it has good teaching in it we are sending it to the group. In this moving world, whatever moves is enveloped (is prevaded) by God. Therefore, you find your enjoyment (or protect yourself) by offering it to him (i.e. by renunciation) [To whom does the wealth belong? It belongs to no one] Be no greedy to what belongs to others. Whatever animate or inanimate objects we witness in this world are the abode of the Almighty. Enjoy it with a sense of renunciation, do not grab, because it belongs to nobody i.e. the resources of the world belong to God and it is for his pleasure that they ought to be used.

133

गर्वाय परपीडायै दुर्जस्य धनं बलम् |
सज्जनस्य तु दानाय रक्षणाय च ते सदा ||

Wealth and strength of a wicked person is for his vanity(show off) and (ability) to trouble others (respectively). for a good person, they are always for donating (or say sharing with others) and to protect (others) (respectively).

134

यथाचिज्ञल्त;ां तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रिया: |
चिज्ञल्त;ो वाचि क्रियायांच साधुनामेकरूपता ||

What is in mind should be reflected in one's speech (yaTA chittam taTA vAcho). What is in one's speech should be reflected in one's actions (yaTA vAchataTA kriyHa). Thus the person whose mind, speech and actions are same is a 'sADhu' (I don't think 'gentlemen' is a word anywhere close to the meaning of word 'SADhu'! Meanings of some words can be best appreciated in that language only.).

135

सत्यं वद , धर्मं चर , स्वाध्यायान्मा प्रमद: |
आचार्याय प्रियं धनमाहॄत्य प्रजातन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सी:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

तैत्तरीयोपनिषद्

[This subhashita is an advice to a bhachelor coming out of Gurukula after finishing his studies, before entering into Gruhasthashrama.]

Speak truth, beahave as dharma dictates (dharmAcharan), do not miss swAdhyAy. ( Literally, swadhyay means self-study. ) After paying Gurudakshina (fees) to the guru (teacher), do not stop family propagation. (by entering into Gruhasthashrama)

136

विवेक: सह संपत्या विनयो विद्यया सह |
प्रभुत्वं प्रश्रयोपेतं चिन्हमेतन्महात्मनाम् ||

This is the indication of great people that (they have) discretion along with wealth, humbleness along with scholarship, (and) power with courteousness. Note that this suBAshit has some similarity to that of suBAshit No. 05

137

ये के च अस्माकंज्ञन्ब्स्प; श्रेयांसो ब्राह्मणा: तेषां त्वया आासनेन प्रश्र्वसितव्यम् |
श्रद्धया देयम् , अश्रद्धया अदेयम् , श्रिया देयम् , ह्रिया देयम् , भिया देयम् , संविदा देयम् ||

तैत्तरीयोपनिषद्

Those who are superior Brahman, you offer them seat with respect. (Treat them with great respect.) Donate wholeheartedly. Do not give unwillingly. Donate without hesitation. Donate politely. (Do not donate for fame). Donate by fear. ( Feel afraid about being narrow minded) Donate with compassion.

138

वज्रादपि कठोराणि मॄदूनि कुसुमादपि |
लोकोज्ञल्त;ाराणां चेतांसि को हि विज्ञाम्प;ातुमर्हति ||

The minds of extraordinary people are harder than (even) the thunderbolt and softer than (even) the flowers; who in this world is capable of discerning them properly? Just pay attention to the two extreme qualities of mind that suBAshitKar has mentioned and further to be present in the same human being! Still further to have the 'vivek' to decide under which circumstances what state of mind should be there and to act accordingly!!

139

संसारविषवॄक्षस्यज्ञन्ब्स्प; द्वे एव मधुरे फले |
सुभाषितं च सुस्वादु सद्भिश्र्च सह संगम: ||

Poisonous tree (in the form of materialistic world ) has only two sweet fruits. Sweetest Subhashit and company of good people !

140

धॄति: क्षमा दमोऽस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रह: |
धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम् ||

Fortitude, forgivefulness, (self) control, non stealing, purity, withdrawal of senses, intelligence, learning, truth, non-anger (these) ten qualities constitute the characteristics of 'Dharma'.

This suBAshit along with suBAshit No. 17 explains what 'Dharma' is. Please note that there is no equivalent word in english for 'Dharma'. The english word 'Religion' is not at all even close to what 'Dharma' is in samskrit language. Other suBAshitas where the word 'Dharma' occurs are SuBAshit Nos. 22,67,80,127,135. All these subaashitas will help in understanding of what actually 'Dharma' means in our culture.

141

मितं च सारं च वचो हि वाग्मिता |

This subhasita befits the nature of Sanskrit language perfectly. It contains esential truth and is as concise as the meaning itself. Thus Sanskrit is the language of true eloquence.

On the other hand, even if one cannot speak Sanskrit, the test of his eloquence is how well he can put esential truth in only a few words - and that is actually the advice of this subhashita.

142

श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेत: तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीर: |
श्रेयो हि धीरोभिप्रेयसो वॄणीते प्रेयो मन्दो षोगक्षेमाद् वॄणीते ||

Both the good (Shreyas) and the pleasant (Preyas) approch the man. The wise man pondering over them, makes his choice. The wise chooses the good (Shreyas) in preference to the pleasant (Preyas). The fool (simple-minded) for the sake of worldly-being prefers the pleasant (preyas)

143

मत्रस्य मा चक्षुषा सर्वाणि भूतानि समीक्षन्ताम् |
मित्रस्याहं चक्षुषा सर्वाणि भूतानि समीक्षे मित्रस्य चक्षुषा समीक्षामहे ||

यजुर्वेद

All living beings in this world should see me with an amiable eye. I should (also) look at all the living beings with a friendly eye. (I should be very loving and affectionate to all living beings on this earth.) We all should see each other with a friendly eye. (We all should be sympathetic and loving to each other.)

144

श्रॄयताम् धर्मसर्वस्वं श्रॄत्वा चैवावधार्यताम् |
आत्मन: प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत् ||

Please listen to the essence of Dharma (i.e. piety) and having listened to it, bear in mind. The essence of Dharma is: Whatever is adverse (or Unfavourable) to us, we should not adopt (operate) that in case of others.

145

इन्द्रं मित्रं वरूणमग्निमाहुरथो दिव्य: स सुपर्णाे गरूत्मान् |
ज्ञख्8216;एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्तिज्ञख्8217; अग्निं यमं मातरिश्र्वानमाहु: ||

Indra, Surya (the sun), Varun (the rain), Agni (the fire), Garuda with divine and beautiful wings, Yama (the God of Death) and Vayu (the wind) are all the manifestations of the same satyaswarup (closest meaning righteous, veracious ) God. The wise call this spirit by different names given above.

146

आदित्यचन्द्रावनिलोऽनलश्र्चद्यौर्भूमिरापो हॄदयं यमश्र्च |
अहश्र्च रात्रिश्र्च उभे च संध्ये धर्माेऽपि जानाति नरस्य वॄत्तम् ||

महाभारत

Aditya (The Sun), Chandra (The Moon), Vayu (The wind), Agni (The fire), Akash (The Space), Prithvi ( The Earth), Jala (The Water), Hridaya (Heart), Yama (The death), both Sandhikalas (Dawn and Dusk) and Dharma, witness what man does.

147

पूर्वजन्मकॄतं कर्म तद् दैवमिति कथ्यते |
तस्मात् पुरूषकारेण यत्नं कुर्यादतन्द्रित: ||

हितोपदेश

The karma of previous birth is called as daiva (fortune) (in this birth). So, one should try and work hard (in this birth ) without relaxation.

148

षड् दोषा: पुरूषेणेह हातव्या भूतिमिच्छता |
निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोध: आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रता ||

पंचतंत्र

One who wishes to prosper in this world, should keep back the following six faults sleep (too much), lethargy, fear, anger, laziness and miserliness (stinginess). The six faults can be interpreted as follows:- nidrA :- sleep i.e. ignorance, not knowing what is happening around. tandrA :- lethargy, lassitude. bhaya :- fear. krodh :- anger, short temper. aalsyam :- laziness. diirghasuutrataa :- procrastinate, one who is slow in acting, takes too long for decisions etc.

149

ये केचिद् दु:खिता लोके सर्वे ते स्वसुखेच्छया |
ये केचित् सुखिता लोके सर्वे तेऽन्यसुखेच्छया ||

Whatever persons are unhappy in this world, they are so because of their desire (greed) for their own happiness. While those who are happy in this world, they are so, because of their desire for the happiness of others. People are miserable because they strive for their happiness and do not obtain it, while those who strive or exert to make others happy become themselves happy!

150

अभ्दि: गात्राणि शुध्यन्ति मन: सत्येन शुध्यति |
विद्यातपोभ्यां भूतात्मा बुध्दिज्ञाम्पर्;ानेन शुध्यति ||

मनुस्मॄति

Senses (Sense-Organs) are purified by water; Mind is purified by truth; Soul is purified by learning and penance; While intelligence is purified by knowledge.

151

अभिवादनशीलस्य नित्यं वॄद्धोपसेविन: |
चत्वारि तस्य वर्धन्ते आयुर्विद्या यशो बलम् ||

For a person who is polite and serves/respects old people, four things Viz, life (number of years), knowledge, success in life and strength increase. In short, such person leaves a successful life.

152

षड् गुणा: पुरुषेणेह त्यक्तव्या न कदाचन |
सत्यं दानम् अनालस्यम् अनसूया क्षमा धॄति: ||

A person should never give up following six qualities. truth (sticking to truth), generosity, activeness, being free from jealousy, tolerance and firmness.

153

छायामन्यस्य कुर्वन्ति स्वयं तिष्ठन्ति चातपे |
फलान्यपि परार्थाय वॄक्षा: सत्पुरूषा इव ||

The trees make shade for others, themselves standing in Sun. (Their) fruits are also for others. (Hence) the trees are like 'satpurush' (gentlemen).

154

पात्रे त्यागी गुणे रागी संविभागी च बन्धुषु |
शास्त्रे बोद्धा रणे योद्धा स वै ज्ञख्8216;पुरूषज्ञख्8217; उच्यते ||

(One who) donates to right person (for noble cause), appreciates good qualities in others, shares joys and sorrows with brothers, gathers knowledge of science and is ( an excellent ) warrior on battlefield is called ‘Man’.

155

शुचित्वं त्यागिता शौर्यं सामान्यं सुखदु:खयो: |
दाक्षिण्यञ्चानुरज्ञिग्त;श्च सत्यता च सुहॄद्गुणा: ||

The qualities of a true friend are: Purity, generosity, chivalry, being composed in happiness and distress, politeness, affection and truthfulness.

The main point of this subhashita is not that we have to make people of such qualities our friends, but that we need to make such qualities our own, for then we will naturally attract virtuous people to become our friends

156

आदानस्य प्रदानस्य कर्तव्यस्य च कर्मण: |
क्षिप्रम् अक्रियमाणस्य काल: पिबति तद्रसम् ||

हितोपदेश

Whatever you have to return back to others or whichever work has to be done by you, please do it in the expected time only (Don't delay too much). If you don't do this in time (You do it late) then the importance of that work vanishes (i.e. the effect of the work if done late will have no impact. Here the impact of the work that is done in time is compared to a sweet drink ('rasa')).

suBAshitkAr says that if you don't do your 'karma' (duties) at proper time then the sweetness of your work's result is lost. 'kaal' (Time) will drink that sweetness!!

157

मा वनं छिन्धि सव्याघ्रं मा व्याघ्रा: नीनशन् वनात् |
वनं हि रक्ष्यते व्याघ्रौ: व्याघ्रान् रक्षति काननम् ||

महाभारत

Don't destroy the forest where tigers are living. Tigers should not get extinguished from the forests. Forest is protected by the tiger (People don't cut trees in the forest for fear of tiger) and by providing the place to hide, forest too protects the tiger!

158

न तु अहं कामये राज्यं न स्वर्गं न अपुनर्भवम् |
कामये दु:खतप्तानां प्राणिनाम् आर्तिनाशनम् ||

भागवत

" I do not desire kingdom, nor the heaven or even liberation ('moksha'). I have only one desire and that is to remove the misery of all the living beings who are suffering." King Rantidev has prayed to God in above words. This 'shloka' is also in the Mahabharat- Dronparva.

159

लक्ष्मी: चन्द्राद् अपेयाद् वा हिमवान् वा हिमं त्यजेत् |
अतीयात् सागरो वेलां न प्रतिज्ञाम्प;ाम् अहं पितु: ||

These are the words uttered by Shri. Ram when he is going for exile ('vanvAs'). Shri. Ram says: It may happen that brightness may leave the moon, or that the ice may leave the Himalaya, or that Sea may exceed it's limits.... But it is never possible that I will break the oath given to my father.

160

दीपो भक्षयते ध्वान्तं कज्जलं च प्रसूयते |
यादॄशं भक्षयेदन्नं जायते तादॄशी प्रजा ||

The lamp eats the darkness and gives birth to soot (generates soot). The food you eat has an influence on the offspring.

161

जितात्मन: प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहित: |
शीतोष्णसुखदु:खेषु तथा मानापमानयो: ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; गीता 6:8

For one who has conquered the mind, the Super soul is already reached, for he has attained tranquillity. To such a man happiness and distress,heat and cold, honour and dishonour are all the same.

162

कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपं स्त्रीणां रूपं पतिव्रतम् विद्या रूपं कुरूपाणां क्षमा रूपं तपस्विनाम् पंचतंत्र

Cuckoo bird’s beauty is in it’s voice, woman’s beauty is in her dedication to family/husband ('pativrata'). Knowledge is the beauty of an ugly person and forgiving is the beauty of the sages ('tapaswis').

163

किम् अपि अस्ति स्वभावेन सुन्दरं वा अपि असुन्दरम् |
यद् एव रोचते यस्मै भवेत् तत् तस्य सुन्दरम् ||

Any thing that we see in this world, is it beautiful or ugly in it's very nature? (Of-course No) The thing which is liked by any individual is felt beautiful by that individual! For example a ugly looking child is still loved very much by his/her mother.

164

अकालो नास्ति धर्मस्य जीविते चञ्चले सति |
गॄहीत: इव केशेषु मॄत्युना धर्मम् आचरेत् ||

When this life is full of uncertainty there is no time which is unfavourable for living the life as per the 'dharma'. Think as if death is within it's reach to you and obey the 'dharma'. Death can come anytime so always do good things (It shouldn’t happen that due to early death your wish to live the life of 'dharma' remained a mere wish only!!!). Don't wait for any favourable time ('muhurta') at which you will start living good life! The whole point is if you want to lead a good/noble life start NOW! Note that 'dharma' is not religion. Please refer suBAshitas No. 17,22,50,67,140,144 for more explanations of the word 'dharma'.

165

बुद्धि: प्रभाव: तेजश्च सत्वमुत्थानमेवच |
व्यवसायश्र्च यस्यास्ति तस्य वॄत्तिभयं कुत: ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; विदुरनीति

One who has brain, chivalry, poise, power, enthusiasm and willingness to work; why he/she has to worry about earning his/her living ?

166

गुणैरुत्तमतांयाति नोच्चैरासनसंस्थित: |
प्रासादशिखरस्थोपि काक: किं गरुडायते ||

Worth of a person is not determined by his seat (position), but by his qualities. Just by sitting on tip of palace, a cow can not become eagle.

167

दॄष्टिपूतं न्यसेत्पादं वस्त्रपूतं जलं पिबेत् |
सत्यपूता वदेत् वाचं मन: पूतं समाचरेत् ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; चाणक्य

Subhashitkar hear explains what device are to be used to purify different things. He says, purify your next step by your vision i.e. watch the path carefully before you step further. drink water, which is purified by cloth. speak after purification by satya (truth) i.e. speak whatever truth is. purify your behaviour by your mind i.e. make conscience efforts to keep your behaviour good.

168

मॄगमीनसज्जनानां तॄणजलसंतोषविहितवॄज्ञल्त;ाीनाम् |
लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना: निष्कारणम् एव वैरिणो जगति ||

भतर्ॄहरि नीति

Deer, Fishes and noble people ('sajjan') earn their livelihoods on dry grass, water and satisfaction ('santosh') respectively! Even though they lead such simple life without troubling anyone still we find hunters, fishermen and bad people ('durjan') becoming their enemies! It's really true that the people who do not trouble others still have enemies without any reason!

169

न उच्चार्थो विफलोऽपि दूषणपदं दूष्य:तु कामो लघु: ||

There is no fault in the failure of the big dreams/aims. But it's big fault even to think for the personal selfish gains.

170

असतो मा सद्गमय, तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय , मॄत्योर्मा अमॄतं गमय |
ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; बॄहदारण्यकज्ञन्ब्स्प; उप|

( Oh God ) From the unreal lead me to the real From darkness lead me to light From death lead me to immortality.

171

विद्या मित्रं प्रवासेषु भार्या मित्रं गॄहेषु च |
व्याधितस्यौषधं मित्रं धर्माे मित्रं मॄतस्य च ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; महाभारत

Knowledge is (your) friend in the journey, wife is the friend at home, drug is (like) friend in illness and dharma is the friend after death.

172

आदौ माता गुरो: पत्नी ब्राा*मणी राजपत्निका |
धेनुर्धात्री तथा पॄथ्वी सप्तैता मातर: स्मॄत: ||

Our own mother (i.e. one who gives birth), guru's (teacher's) wife, wife of a brahmin, wife of a king, cow, nurse and the earth are our mothers.

The word 'mother' indicates respect we have about somebody. Here, subhashitkar says that we have seven mothers i.e. we should have respect to all listed in the subhashita.

173

यथा हि एकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिर्भवेत् |
एवं पुरूषकारेण विना दैवं न सिध्यति ||

Just like a chariot cannot run with only a single wheel, in the same way luck will not favour the human without his/her efforts.

174

ग्रहाणां चरितं स्वप्नो अनिमिज्ञल्त;ाानि उपयाचितम् |
फलन्ति काकतालीयं तेभ्य: प्राज्ञाम्प;ा: न बिभ्यति ||

When there are changes in our life (good or bad) we generally attribute these to things like - effects of Planetary motions, (bad/good) dream, (bad/good) signs, results of praying to God. But really speaking these are just like the coincidence of a crow sitting on the branch of a tree and that branch falling on ground within few minutes!! (The branch does not fall down due to the weight of the crow!!!)

175

न भूतपूर्वं न कदापि वार्ता हेम्न: कुरंगो न कदापि दॄष्ट: |
तथापि तॄष्णा रघुनन्दनस्य विनाशकाले विपरीत बुद्धि: ||

It has never happened before, nobody has heard about, no body has seen a golden deer. But, ShriRama's greed (about it) is unfavorable intention leading to destruction.

176

गुरुं वा बालवॄद्धौ वा ब्राा*मणं वा बहुश्रुतम् |
आततायिनमायान्तं हन्यादेवाविचारयान् ||

Hostile person is to be killed without any (second) thought, even if he is your guru (your teacher), a child, an old person, a brahmin (an honorable person) or very famous.

Subhashitakar wants to emphasize here that there is no excuse for crime, no matter who has done that.

177

आपदां कथित: पन्था: इन्दि्रयाणाम् असंयम: |
तद्जय: संपदां मार्ग: येनेष्टं तेन गम्यताम् ||

चाणक्यनीति

Being under the command of our senses/mind is nothing but invitation to many problems and winning over them is a pathway to the glory/success! Choose any path that you like!! Animals get satisfied by Taste,Touch,Smell etc. Getting too much happiness from such things is like being under their command. If human beings are "different" than animals then these things will not give the ultimate joy to any human being.

178

तद्वाग्विसर्गे जनताघविप्लवे यस्मिन् प्रतिXलेकमबद्धवत्यपि È नामान्यनन्तस्य यXाोऽङ्कितानि यत् Xाॄण्वन्ति गायन्ति गॄणन्ति साधव: ÈÈ

"Each line (prati-Slokam) of those writtings, which intend to describe the glory of the names of God

(ananta, the unlimited), are bringing about a revolution among the sinful population of this world. Sadhus (or thoroughly honest and purehearted men) hear, recite and accept such literature, even though it is imperfectly composed (abaddhavati)." Bhagavata Purana 1.5.11

Explanation:- Srila Vyasadeva is stressing that the most important thing in any book, or mere few sentences of writting, is the purity of the author's intention. Even sadhus, the most exalted men, will apreciate (hear and accept) such texts although they find many discrepancies in them.

179

अर्थानाम् अर्जने दु:खम् अर्जितानां च रक्षणे |
आये दु:खं व्यये दु:खं धिग् अर्था: कष्टसंश्रया: ||

पंचतंत्र 1163

Getting all types of wealth is painful, after getting the wealth protecting it is painful, after you have obtained the wealth it's the cause for many sorrows, if the wealth is spent then also it's sorrowful..... such a wealth which is cause to all types of problems be condemned!!

180

सुवर्णपुष्पां पॄथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरूषास्त्रय: |
शूरश्र्च कॄतविद्यश्र्च यश्र्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

Three kinds of people get the golden earth; Chivalrous, learned, and the ones who do service. (The Earth gives all its wealth to the three kinds of people.)

181

क्वचिद्भूमौ शय्या , क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयन: |
क्वचित् शाकाहारी , क्वचिदपि च शाल्योदनरूचि: |
क्वचित् कन्थाधारी , क्वचिदपि च दिव्याम्बरधर:,ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम् ||

Sometimes sleeps on floor and sleeps on fine bed at other times. Sometimes manages only with vegetables and eats delicious rice at other times. Sometimes wears torn clothes and wears elegant clothes at other times. The person devoted to work does not care about sorrows and joys.

182

उपकारान् स्मरेन्नित्यम् अपकारां्श्र्चज्ञन्ब्स्प; विस्मरेत् |
शुभे शैघ्र्यं प्रकुर्वीत अशुभे दीर्घसूत्रता ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; वाल्मीकिरामायण

One should always remember the favours (done by others) and forget the mean deeds. Do the good things at once, however postpone the unpleasant things.

183

आरभ्यते नखलु विघ्नभयेन नीचै: |
प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विस्मरन्ति मध्या: ||

विघ्ने: पुन: पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमाना: |
प्रारभ्य चोत्तमजना न परित्यजन्ति ||

Inferior men do not star a work due to fear of obstacles. Medium men start their work, but leave the work whenever they get difficulty. Exceptionally good people start their work, and continue doing working even if there is series of obstacles in their way.

184

न जातु काम: कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति |
हविषा कॄष्ण्मत्र्मेव भुय एवाभिवर्धते ||

(any) Desire never gets fulfilled even if it is temporarily satisfied. As, fire consumes offered ghee and increases, desire also increases with consumption.

185

स हि भवति दरिद्रो यस्य तॄष्णा विशाला |
मनसि च परितुष्टे कोर्थवान् को दरिद्रा: ||

The person who has more desires is infact the poorest one. If one's mind is satisfied then will there be any distinction between rich and poor? suBAshikAr has termed that person as "Poor" who has more desires. The basic parameters on which anyone's richness or poverty is decided (Which is ofcourse Money) is changed by the suBAshikAr from money to desire (trushna)!!

186

अरौ अपि उचितं कार्यमातिथ्यं गॄहमागते |
छेज्ञल्त;ाु: पाश्र्वगतां छायां न उपसंहरते दु्रम: ||

हितोपदेश

Do treat even the enemy who has come to your house as a guest. Look how a tree does not take away it's shadow over the person who has come to cut it!!

187

यथा धेनुसहस्त्रेषु वत्सो विन्दति मातरम् |
तथा पूर्वकॄतं कर्म कर्तारमनुगच्छति ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; महाभारत

Calf recognises its mother among the herd of thousands of cows; the same way, karma of previous birth (good and bad deeds) goes with the doer.

188

अस्थिरं जीवितं लोके अस्थिरे धनयौवने |
अस्थिरा: पुत्रदाराश्र्च धर्मकीर्तिद्वयं स्थिरम् ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; वैराग्यशतक

In this world, the life is uncertain, wealth and youthfulness (also) do not last long (they are unstable). (Even) son and wife are unstable. Dharma and fame are the two things that last long (are stable).

189

कॄपणेन समो दाता न भूतो न भविष्यति |
अस्पॄशन्नेव वित्तानि य: परेभ्य: प्रयच्छति ||

No one was/will be ever as generous as a stingy person. He gives his wealth to others without even touching it. Here the subhashitakar is stressing that a miser never spends his money, and after his death, others get that money.

190

खलानां कण्टकानांच द्विविधैव प्रतिक्रिया |
उपानन्मुखभंगोवा दूरतो वा विसर्जनम् ||

There are only two options while dealing with the wicked people and a thorn lying on the road. One is to hit their face by your footware or leave them aside!!

Actually the word 'muKhaBhang' applies to both the thorn and the wicked person. When appiled to the wicked person it means you insult that person (and not litellary to hit that person on face!) and when applied to a thorn it means you cut that part of the thorn which is pointed and thus it will not harm anyone. Further the suBAShitkAr says that if you don't have capabilities to do such things then simply leave them aside (You follow a different path!!)

191

मूलं भुजंगै: शिखरं विहंगै: ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; शाखां प्लवंगै: कुसुमानि भॄंगै: |
आश्चर्यमेतत् खलुचन्दनस्य ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; परोपकाराय सतां विभूतय: ||

Roots of the sandalwood tree form a shelter for the snakes, on it's top birds take rest, on it's branches monkeys are playing and one can find bee's on it's flowers. Really, the ultimate aim of the good ('sajjan') people is to offer helping hands to others ('paropkAr')!

192

दूरस्थोऽपि न दूरस्थो यो यस्य मनसि स्थित: |
यो यस्य हॄदये नास्ति समीपस्थोऽपि दूरत: ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; चाणक्यनीतिसार

The one who resides in your mind, is not far away even if one is staying far away(physically). (However) The one who doesn’t have place in your heart, is distant even if one is close to you.

193

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् |
आत्मैव ह्मात्मनो बंधु: आत्मैव रिपुरात्मन:ाा

Be cause of your own progress, don't be a cause of your own degradation. You yourself are your friend or enemy (no one else).

That is, a person will prosper or ruin due to his own deeds, he has to select what he wants.

194

न कश्चित् कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित् कस्यचित् रिपु: |
अर्थतस्तु निबध्यन्ते मित्राणि रिपवस्तथा ||

Nobody is friend of any other person. Nobody is enemy of any other person. Need (intention or the situation) only binds (a person as your) friend or enemy.

Friendship or enmity is a relationship between two persons, and it is decided only on their interests. No person is your friend or enemy if you don't consider your interest..

195

अज्ञाम्प;: सुखम् आराध्य: सुखतरम् आराध्यते विशेषज्ञाम्प;: |
ज्ञाम्प;ानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मा अपि नरं न रंजयति ||

It's very easy to convince an uneducated person. It's even more easy to convince a person who has complete knowledge. But a person who develops a false pride on basis of half-knowledge gained, cannot be convinced even by God.

196

यथा हि गोसहस्रेषु वत्सो विन्दति मातरम् |
तथा पूर्वकॄतं कर्म कर्तारम् अनुविन्दति ||

In the group of thousands of cows, the calf correctly identifies it's mother and comes near it's mother - In the same way the deeds done in the past life correctly gets attached to the person (It's effect cannot be undone). Here suBAshitkAr has compared cow with the 'person' (The one who is doing 'karma') and the previous life deeds ('karmas') with the calf. Just as the cow need not bother that how in thousands of group it's calf will locate her, in the same way a human need not bother about how his/her past life deeds will get attached in the current life! According to the Hindu philosophy the current life that we have got and all the goods and bads in it are due to the effect of our deeds in the past life and the deeds in this life will determine about our next life. So 'plan' your next life!!

197

अभ्यासाद् धार्यते विद्या कुलं शीलेन धार्यते |
गुणेन ज्ञाम्प;ायते त्वार्य: कोपो नेत्रेण गम्यते ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; चाणकयनीतिसार

The studies make one’s knowledge grow ( The education of a person can be judged by the knowledge he/she possesses). Kula is perceived by one’s behaviour. The virtues show one’s originality, (however) the anger can be sensed from one’s eyes.

198

कस्यैकान्तं सुखम् उपनतं दु:खम् एकान्ततो वा |
नीचैर् गच्छति उपरि च दशा चक्रनेमिक्रमेण ||

कालिदास मेघदूत

Who is the one who experiences constant happiness or constant sorrows? Like any point on a wheel goes down and again rises up so also the happiness and sorrows follow each other in one's life. Therefore don't get excited by happiness nor get dejected by sorrows.

199

प्रत्यहं प्रत्यवेक्षेत नरश्चरितमात्मन: |
किन्नु मे पशुभिस्तुल्यं किन्नु सत्पुरूषैरिति ||

Every day one should introspect one's own bheaviour and see what are qualities in me that resemble with animal ('pashu') characteristics and what are the qualities that resemble with the qualities of a noble person. ('satpurusha'). A simple way of implementation given for any individual to brighten the inherent noble qualities present in the human mind!

200

अव्याकरणमधीतंज्ञन्ब्स्प; भिन्नद्रोण्या तरंगिणीतरणम् |
भेषजमपथ्यसहितं त्रयमिदमकॄतं वरं न कॄतं ||

Learning without grammar (i.e. not learning fundamentals, only surface), crossing river using boat which has a hole, and consuming medicines without following the instructions of the physician, better not to do these three things rather than doing them this way. It is advisable not to do something rather than doing it improperly.

201-300[सम्पाद्यताम्]

201

अल्पानामपि वस्तूनां संहति: कार्यसाधिका तॄणैर्गुणत्वमापन्नैर् बध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिन:

Meaning: Even small-small (insignificant) things, when put together, can do a great work. A rope made up of hay sticks can control a powerful elephant. Unity is power.

202

शैले शैले न माणिक्यं मौक्तिकं न गजे गजे साधवो न हि सर्वत्र चन्दनं न वने वने हितोपदेश

All the mountains do not have the precious stones, you will not get pearls from all the elephants; The philanthropists are not very common, sandalwood is not found in all the woods. (The good things are uncommon)

203

एकवर्णं यथा दुग्धं भिन्नवर्णासु धेनुषु |
तथैव धर्मवैचित्र्यं तज्ञल्त;वमेकं परं स्मॄतम् ||

महाभारत

The cows of different colours produce milk of one colour, in the same way, the principle taught by different religions is one.

204

सर्वं परवशं दु:खं सर्वम् आत्मवशं सुखम् |
एतद् विद्यात् समासेन लक्षणं सुखदु:खयो: ||

Whatever is not in possession of ourselves (It is with others) is sorrow and whatever is in possession of ourselves is happiness. In short, these are the indications of happiness and sorrow! Happiness is inside the human-being and not outside. Happiness is not tied with the external entity. Absence of desire is absolute happiness! People become unhappy when they see new/better objects of consumption not in their ownership. So the suBAshitkAr has in simple words told us what are the things that makes one happy or sad. We have to decide if we want to be happy or sad!

205

आलस्य कुतो विद्या अविद्यस्य कुतो धनम् |
अधनस्य कुतो मित्रम् अमित्रस्य कुतो सुखम् ||

How can a lazy person acquire knowledge? Without knowledge how will one get wealth? Without wealth who will become friends? And without friends how will anyone become happy?

206

आकाशात् पतितं तोयं यथा गच्छति सागरम् |
सर्वदेवनमस्कार: केशवं प्रति गच्छति ||

Just as the rain water that falls on the earth travels through various rivers and ultimately reaches the sea - In the same way offerings ('Namaskaras') offered to various Gods ultimately reaches only one God.

207 |

नीरक्षीरविवेके हंस आलस्यम् त्वम् एव तनुषे चेत् |
विश्वस्मिन् अधुना अन्य: कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति क: ||

So here in the above suBAshita, the suBAshitkAr addressing the swan says - Only you have the capability to separate milk and water, and so if you only become lazy then who else will be able to do your job? If the people with bright intellect and unique skills don't carry their work as is expected from them, then who else can do it? It is the responsibility of the beaurocrats, doctors, engineers, farmers, soldiers,writers,poets,artists,thinkers,saints of the nation to do their job with the best of their abilities, or else how will the nation progress?

208

पापंज्ञन्ब्स्प; प्रज्ञाम्प;ा नाशयति क्रियमाणं पुन: पुन: |
नष्टप्रज्ञाम्प;: पापमेव नित्यमारभते नर:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

विदूरनीति

Person loses the conscience (ability to think) by committing sins again and again and the one who has lost the conscience keeps on doing sins.

209

पुण्यं प्रज्ञाम्प;ा वर्धयति क्रियमाणं पुन:पुन: |
वॄद्धप्रज्ञाम्प;: पुण्यमेव नित्यमारभते नर:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

विदूरनीति

Person gains conscience (ability to think) by doing good deeds again and again and the one who has conscience, keeps on doing good things.

210

अनेकशास्त्रं बहुवेदितव्यम् अल्पश्च कालो बहवश्च विघ्ना: यत् सारभूतं तदुपासितव्यं हंसो यथा क्षीरमिवाम्भुमध्यात्

There are many ‘shastraas’ (topics of study, doctrines) and abundance of knowledge. We have limited time and many obstacles. As swan (haMsaH) extracts milk from mixture of milk and water, one should (only) study essence of shastras (rather than studying each end every shastra to great details).

211

कलहान्तनि हम्र्याणि कुवाक्यानां च सौ)दम् कुराजान्तानि राष्ट्राणि कुकर्मांन्तम् यशो नॄणाम्

Quarrels destroy families. Bad words (which hurt others) destroy friends (friendships). Nations get destroyed due to incapable person as a King. Person's bad deeds destroy (or keeps him away from) success.

212

दुर्लभं त्रयमेवैतत् देवानुग्रहहेतुकम् |
मनुष्यत्वं मुमुक्षुत्वं महापुरूषसश्रय: ||

These three are difficult to obtain in this world, and depend on the mercy of the gods - the human birth, the desire for salvation, and the company of the great-souled ones. This suBAshit will surely appeal to an spiritual person! Individually we can think which of these things we have and be greatful towards it. If we don't have the company of great-souled ones then we should become one!

213

सुखार्थी त्यजते विद्यां विद्यार्थी त्यजते सुखम् |
सुखार्थिन: कुतो विद्या कुतो विद्यार्थिन: सुखम् ||

The one who runs after the luxuries will not get knowledge. And the one who wants to gain knowledge leaves the luxuries. How will any one get knowledge if he/she wants to lead a easy life? And how will one get to live a easy life who is looking for knowledge? suBAshitkAr makes us "understand" that knowledge cannot be gained leading a lavish life-style. Therefore may be in ancient Bharat the 'Gurukula' system was designed in such a way that students in their student life should gain maximum knowledge by staying away from all the pleasures of the materialistic world.

214

दिवसेनैव तत् कुर्याद् येन रात्रौ सुखं वसेत् |
यावज्जीवं च तत्कुर्याद् येन प्रेत्य सुखं वसेत् ||

विदूरनीति

Do such a work through the day, so that you can sleep peacefully at night. Similarly, do such a work throughout your life so that you can 'live' peacefully after death.

215

उपार्जितानां वित्तानां त्याग एव हि रक्षणम् तडागोदरसंस्थानां परीवाह इवाम्भसाम्

Donating (part of ... these are my words :-) ) earned wealth is the best way to protect it. (Just like) allowing water to flow out of a lake is best way to keep the lake clean. Well, I don't know how exactly it works, but may be like this, If you are standing in a bus, and say seat before you becomes empty. If you offer that seat to some other person in the bus, next time when a seat in vicinity becomes empty he takes care that you get it. Similarly if you help others, they will protect you.

216

खल: सर्षपमात्राणि पराच्छिद्राणि पश्यति |
आत्मनो बिल्वमात्राणि पश्यन्नपि न पश्यति ||

A wicked person will notice the bad qualities as tiny as a mustard seed in other person, but will not notice even the bad qualities as large as any big leaf ('bilva-patra') within himself/herself. This subhaashita teaches us to look in to ourselves before we pass any bad comments on others.

217

दानं भोगो नाश: तिस्त्रो गतयो भवन्ति विज्ञल्त;ास्यज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
यो न ददाति न भुङ्ज्ञग्त;े तस्य तॄतीया गतिर्भवतिज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

There are three things that can happen with money/wealth . The money can be donated, it can be consumed for individual purposes and lastly it can be destroyed (It will be of no use to either the individual nor to the society). The wealth of the person who does not donate nor use it for his/her own purposes, ultimately gets destroyed. There are so many subhaahitas that tell us not to accumulate wealth! But as Shri. Ramray Kamath has stated in his last e-mail that attachment to money is often hard to resist- it rightly calls for a "sacrifice" in true sense. Please refer to the suBAshitas No. 121, 124, 133, 179 and 189 which give us more guidelines for putting our earned wealth for proper usage!

218

यादॄशै: सन्निविशते यादॄशांश्चोपसेवते |
यादॄगिच्छेच्च भवितुं तादॄग्भवति पूरूष: ||

One becomes like the people (around him/her), who one lives with, whom one serves and whom one wants to become like.

219

गुणी गुणं वेत्ति न वेत्ति निर्गुणो बली बलं वेत्ति न वेत्ति निर्बल: |
पिको वसन्तस्य गुणं न वायस: करी च सिंहस्य बलं न मूषक: ||

Only a person with good qualities knows (or appriciates) qualities of another, not a person without any qualities. A strong person knows (or judges) strength of another storng person, not a weak person. Cuckoo understands (or feels) vasanta Ritu (spring) not a crow (The cuckoo starts singing in this preriod). Elephant knows strength of Lion not a mouse.

220

गुणवान् वा परजन: स्वजनो निर्गुणोपि वा निर्गुण: स्वजन: श्रेयान् य: पर: पर एव च

A friend, even without many good qualities, is better than an enemy with good qualities. After all enemy is enemy. Though, we shall appreciate good qualities in others, it must not be forgotten that enemy is enemy and friend is friend. A person is our enemy or friend depending upon his and our interests, it does not depend on his qualities. Refer to subhashit 194, which have similar meaning.

221

पदाहतं सदुत्थाय मूर्धानमधिरोहति |
स्वस्थादेवाबमानेपि देहिनस्वद्वरं रज: ||

Even a dust particle which rises above when beaten by someone's foot is better than the person who sits calmly inspite of being insulted badly. The message of this suBAshita can vary from person to person if applied individually. But when applied to the society or nation it will convey in no uncertain terms that any wrong/insult done, should get a befitting reply. Bharat which has been beaten by the terrorism for so many years could not follow this message.

222

सा भार्या या प्रियं बू्रते स पुत्रो यत्र निवॄति: |
तन्मित्रं यत्र विश्वास: स देशो यत्र जीव्यते ||

The one who speaks in a sweet language is a real wife to any man; from whom one gets happiness and satisfaction is a real son/daughter; on whom we can put our complete faith without any hesitation is a real friend; and the land in which we can easily earn our livelihood is the real country. The way to understand this suBAshita is not by validating our wife, son, friend or country on the above specified parameters but by seeing if we personally have the qualities mentioned by the suBAshitkAr! As for the country it can be said that from the government's point-of-view it is it's duty to see that every person has work and can easily earn his livelihood, but from the citizen's point-of-view it should no doubt be like "Ask not what the country has done for you, but ask what you have done for the country"!

223

जरा रूपं हरति, धैर्यमाशा, मॄत्यु:प्राणान् , धर्मचर्यामसूया |
क्रोध: श्रियं , शीलमनार्यसेवा , ह्रियं काम: , सर्वमेवाभिमान: ||

The old age snatches away the beauty, hope takes away the courage, death defeats the life, hatred will destory ones noble attitude (dharmic vyavahaar), anger will lead to poverty, being in the company of bad people and helping them will take away ones 'sheela', uncontrolled desire will take away the shyness and false pride will take away all the good things!

224

विरला जानन्ति गुणान् विरला: कुर्वन्ति निर्धने स्नेहम् |
विरला: परकार्यरता: परदु:खेनापि दु:खिता विरला: ||

There are very few who can realise the qualities in others. Also are very few who keep attachment towards the poor people. One can rarely find any person who is fully engrossed in some ones work, and also very few are there who "feel" sad by seeing some ones misery. Should we try to become one of such rare and extinguishing species?

225

आरोग्यं विद्वज्ञल्त;ाा सज्जनमैत्री महाकुले जन्म |
स्वाधीनता च पुंसां महदैश्वर्यं विनाप्यर्थे: ||

Good Health, Intelligence, friendship with noble people, birth in a great (noble) family and not being dependent on others (Say for economic or any other needs) - these things (and not 'money') - are the real wealth of a man. Refer to suBAshita No. 212 which very loosely relates with the current suBAshita.

226

कालो वा कारणं राज्ञाम्प;ो राजा वा कालकारणम् इति ते संशयो मा भूत् राजा कालस्य कारणं

Whether circumstances causes King or King causes circumstances? There is no doubt that King causes circumstances. Though it talks about king, it is applicable to all of us. One can have doubt, if surrounding governs him, or he can govern his surroundings. Subhashitkar says that there is no doubt that your surrounding depends on you i.e. you create it.

227

आयुष: क्षण एकोपि सर्वरत्नैर्न लभ्यते |
नायते तद् वॄथा येन प्रामाद: सुमहानहो ||

Even if you surrender all the jewels that you possess, you will not get back a "single" second of the time that has passed away (in your life). When such is a case, those who are wasting the time - what a blunder they are committing!! But 'wasting' of time will mean different to different people! (The work/task which will mean 'proper' usage of time for one person may be the 'waste' for another!) So what exactly to do which will not really mean 'wasting' of time? Please Refer to suBAshita No. 25 on what way to spend the time.

228

योजनानां सहस्त्रं तु शनैर्गच्छेत् पिपीलिका |
आगच्छन् वैनतेयोपि पदमेकं न गच्छति ||

Even a tiny creature such as ant can move ahead miles together if it keeps on walking consistently. But if a Eagle doesn't decide to leave it's place then it can't move even an inch ahead!! suBAshitkAr wants to stress that only having the capability will not do. One should also have the "Will" to achieve the goal. And thus with a strong will an ant (With inferior capabilities) can keep on moving ahead, but the eagle (With much more superior capabilities) - without any efforts can't even dream to reach near it's goal! Notice suBAshita No. 37 which has similar meaning.

229

कन्या वरयते रुपं माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् बान्धवा: कुलमिच्छन्ति मिष्टान्ने इतरेजना:

Different people have different interests out of same act. Take for instance wedding. The bride expects a handsome husband (which is natural for that age), her mother expects a wealthy son in law (so that he will keep the daughter happy in life), her father is interested in a knowledgeable person (which is a good quality for him) where as her brothers are interested in a good family background (so that they have a relation with a noble family). And what about others? they are interested only in delicious food! (they are not bothered about what happens to the husband and wife and their families afterwards).

230

अर्था भवन्ति गच्छन्ति लभ्यते च पुन: पुन: पुन: कदापि नायाति गतं तु नवयौवनम्

Wealth can be earned, it can also be lost. (even after loss) it can be recovered again and again. But youth once gone, never returns.

231

आशा नाम मनुष्याणां काचिदाश्चर्यशॄङखला |
यया बद्धा: प्राधावन्ति मुज्ञग्त;ास्तिष्ठन्ति पङ्गुवत् ||

Desire ('Asha') is a strange (surprising) type of chain! The one who are tied by this chain run here and there (For seeking the objects of desire) and the one who are free from this chain stand calmly at one place without moving, like an disabled person!

232

शास्त्राण्यधीत्यापि भवन्ति मूर्खा यस्तु क्रियावान् पुरूष: स विद्वान् |
सुचिन्तितं चौषधमातुराणां न नाममात्रेण करोत्यरोगम् ||

Even after learning various sciences ('ShAstra') many remain fools ('murKha'). (They only have the theoretical knowledge of the subject) But the one who performs and acts ('kruti') is the real intelligent person. A doctor, with good intentions, only deciding on the correct medicine (for a particular illness) for a patient will not make that patient healthy. But when the doctor ensures that his/her prescriptions are properly followed by the patient, only then will the patient become free from illness.

233 वॄत्तं यत्नेन संरक्ष्येद् वित्तमेति च याति च |
अक्षीणो वित्तत: क्षीणो वॄत्ततस्तु हतो हत: ||

विदूरनीति

One should put efforts in building up good character; the wealth is not stable. One who doesn’t have wealth is not really powerless, (however) characterless person is a waste.

234

परस्य पीडया लब्धं धर्मस्योल्लंघनेन च आत्मावमानसंप्राप्तं न धनं तत् सुखाय वै महाभारत

The wealth, which is earned by troubling others, by disobeying the “Dharma” or even by swallowing (self) insult; does not bring happiness.

235

जानामि धर्मं न च मे प्रावॄज्ञिल्त;ा: |
जानाम्यधर्मं न च मे निवॄज्ञिल्त;ा: ||

This suBAshita is uttered by Duryodhana. Draupadi asks Duryodhana that what is the reason that inspite having many common things in between Kauravas and Pandavas - (Same family ('kula'), Same Guru Dronacharya, Same pitamaha Bhishmacharya) Kauravas always followed the path of 'adharma' and Pandavas always the path of 'Dharma'?

Duryodhana says, "It's not that I didn't knew what was 'Dharma' and what was 'adharma'. But inspite of knowing what is 'Dharma', I couldn't follow it (It didn't become my habit) and even though I knew what was 'adharma' I couldn't desist from not doing it".

This suBAshita ponits at a very delicate nature of the human mind. Many people know what is right and what is wrong. Still why is it that they still follow the wrong path?! So one has to develop the 'habit' ('pravrutti') of following the righteous path (and not to follow the bad way).

236

अकॄत्वा परसन्तापं अगत्वा खलसंसदं अनुत्सॄज्य सतांवर्तमा यदल्पमपि तद्बहु

Without hurting others; Without geting into association of bad Without losing association of good; However little (you progress in the Path of Dharma) That is sufficient. The non-dharmic means cannot justify dharmic "looking" ends. In short ; There is no Dharmic Justification for a "Robinhood" type of activity. (Though ends may be good; the means are not good.) Any intention of Dharmic activity should be absolute and complete from Means through the End.

237

परोपदेशे पांडित्यं सर्वेषां सुकरं नॄणाम् धर्मे स्वीयमनुष्ठानं कस्यचित् सुमहात्मन:

It is easy to advise others (about how to behave, what is good, what is bad etc.) showing one's smartness. (so you can find many people doing that) (But practicing that is very difficult so) Only great man can practice dharma. In other words, only great man can stick to behaviour, what he thinks, the ideal.

238

अमित्रो न विमोक्तव्य: कॄपणं व*णपि ब्राुवन् कॄपा न तस्मिन् कर्तव्या हन्यादेवापकारिणाम्

Never let your enemy free (if you catch him) even if he asks for (and you feel pity on him). Assuming he will harm you in future, kill him.

This Subhashit, no Indian should forget. Many times in our history our Hindu Kings have made this mistake of forgiving enemy. The most ancient example is of Raja Dahir, and the most recent is of Pakistan.

239

नेह चात्यन्तसंवास: कर्हिचित् केनचित् सह |
राजन् स्वेनापि देहेन किमु जायात्मजादिभि: ||

श्रीमद्भागवत

Your Majesty (Dhrutarashtra), no one ever has everlasting relationship with something else, (in this world). Not even with one’s own body, let alone wife and son.

240

इंद्रियाणि पराण्याहु: इंद्रियेभ्य: परं मन: |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धि: यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ||

गीता 342

The working senses are superior to dull matter; mind is higher than the senses; intelligence is still higher than the mind; and he [the soul] is even higher than the intelligence. [The meaning is taken from www.krsna.com]

Observe the ladder: The matter- Senses - The mind - Intelligence ('buddhi') - The Soul.

241

वहेदमित्रं स्कन्धेन यावत्कालविपर्यय: अथैवमागते काले भिन्द्याद् घटमिवाश्मनि

Carry your enemy on your shoulders if time is against you. But with first opportunity, destroy your enemy, as earthen vessel is broken on a rock. This subhashit tells us that an enemy is always an enemy. If you are not in position to fight with him, temporarily try to please him. But whenever you get a chance, finish him.

242

उष्ट्राणां च विवाहेषु गीतं गायन्ति गर्दभा: परस्परं प्रशंसन्ति अहो रुपमहो ध्वनि:

Donkeys are singing song in a weddings of camels. Both are praising each other, (donkeys say) how beautiful (camels are), (camels say) what a pleasant voice (of donkeys. i.e. donkeys are good singers). This is a typical scenario in a gathering of low calibre persons. None of them is of any excellence, but they praise each other, either because they don't know what is excellence, or because they want some mental satisfaction. Now whenever somebody praises you, remember this Subhashit ;-)

243

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रातिष्ठं समुद्रमाप: प्राविशन्ति यद्वत् |
तद्वत् कामा यं प्राविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ||

गीता 270

A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires—that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being filled but is always still—can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy every such desires.

244

मैत्री करूणा मुदितोपेक्षाणां |
सुख दु:ख पुण्यापुण्य विषयाणां |
भावनातश्चिज्ञल्त;ाप्रासादनम् |
पातञ्जल योग 133

Getting delighted and feeling friendly by seeing others joys, getting dejected by seeing others sorrows, feeling happiness and satisfied by seeing others good work ('punya karma') and feeling ignorant on the bad deeds of others (Not discussing and thinking only about the bad nature of the person), - such reactions should occur on our own mind.

A short suBAshita with great meaning, which can help any individual to become a better human being!

245

न प्रहॄष्यति सन्माने नापमाने च कुप्यति |
न क्रुद्ध: परूषं ब्रूयात् स वै साधूत्तम: स्मॄत: ||

मनुस्मॄति

(Those, who) do not get carried away by honour and do not become angry because of dishonour, do not use harsh words, even when angry, are known as great saints.

246

हर्षस्थान सहस्राणि भयस्थान शतानि च |
दिवसे दिवसे मूढं आविशन्ति न पंडितम् ||

For an un-intelligent ('muDha') person, there are hundreds of incidents/ reasons occuring daily to become happy for and thousands of others to become unhappy at. But intelligent person's ('pandit') mind will not get disturbed by such minor things.

247 एका केवलमर्थसाधनविधौ सेना शतेभ्योधिका |
नन्दोन्मूलन दॄष्टवीर्यमहिमा बुद्धिस्तु मा गान्मम ||

Background: Chanakya has uttered the above sentences. After Chanakya and Chandragupta established the 'Maurya' dynasty kingdom (defeating the Nand dynasty king), there were some difference of opinions between Chanakya and other ministers of the Kingdom.

Those who wanted to leave me have already left. Those who want to leave me may also do so without any hesitation. But for achieving my objective, that which has helped me and which is stronger than thousands of soldiers - that my intelligence ('buddhi') - let it not leave me!!

See the confidence of Chanakya in himself! Apart from being self-confident, this subhaashita also teaches us that whatever we loose in life it is nothing... But let us not loose good mind/intellect and other noble qualities in ourselves.

248

दीर्घा वै जाग्रतो रात्रि: दीर्घ श्रान्तस्य योजनम् |
दीर्घो बालानां संसार: सद्धर्मम् अविजानताम्ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

Night sounds very long to the one who is awake all through the night. Little distance appears to be stretched to the one who is already tired of walking. (Similarly) Life sounds long to the people who do not know sat-dharma.

249

देहीति वचनद्वारा देहस्था पञ्च देवता: |
तत्क्षणादेव लीयन्ते र्धीह्र्रीश्र्रीकान्र्तिकीर्तय: ||

The words 'give me' (begging), cause five virtues (good qualities) go away from you, immediately: intelligence, elegance, prosperity, glow and fame.

250

यद्यत् परवशं कर्मं तत् तद् यत्नेन वर्जयेत् यद्यदात्मवशं तु स्यात् तत् तत् सेवेत यत्नत:

Try to avoid any work for which you have to depend on others. Try to finish the work fast for which you can do independently It does not mean that people should not co operate and do things together.

It just gives a word of caution that if you are dependent on others for something,

there is a chance that it will never get done or will be delayed. This is something which we experience frequently.

251

यस्य भार्या गॄहे नास्ति साध्वी च प्रिायवादिनी |
अरण्यं तेन गन्तव्यं यथाऽरण्यं तथा गॄहम् ||

A person whose wife lacks the good conduct (Is not a 'saadhvi') and sweet language, such a person should leave home and go to forest because for him, there should be no difference between a forest and his own home!

252

अकॄत्यं नैव कर्तव्य प्रााणत्यागेऽपि संस्थिते |
न च कॄत्यं परित्याज्यम् एष धर्म: सनातन: ||

The work which is not to be done (because it is bad) should not be done even if you have to loose your life. And the work which has to be done (because it is your duty) - should be continued to be done even if it costs your own life! This is the sanatana Dharma.

253

ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंस: संगस्तेषूपजायते |
संगात् संजायते काम: कामात् क्रोधोऽभिजायते ||

भगवद्गीता 262

“While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises”. The attachment (and hence the desire to attain) for an object develops in the first place by perceiving it through the senses. When such desire is not fulfilled, then there comes anger in the heart (due to frustration of the desire) Therefore the best policy is to not even think about the sense objects and thus live simply and happily. For, the more one thinks, the more one desires; the more one desires, the more one gets frustrated, and the more one gets frustrated, the more one gets angry.

254

नात्यन्त गुणवत् किंचित् न चाप्यत्यन्तनिर्गुणम् उभयं सर्वकार्येषु दॄष्यते साध्वसाधु वा

There is no work which is good in all respects. There is no work bad in all respects. Both good and bad points are present in every work.

255

एकत: क्रतव: सर्वे सहस्त्रवरदक्षिणा |
अन्यतो रोगभीतानां प्रााणिनां प्रााणरक्षणम् ||

महाभारत

On one side is an act of performing 'Yadnya' and donating generously for the same and on the other side is an act of giving an helping hand to the poor/needy and curing the diseased ones. Both these acts will earn for you the same 'Punya'.

256

मातॄवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत् |
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु य: पश्यति स पश्यति ||

Those who are 'dharmic' in nature (Have noble qualities), consider all the women (Except one's own wife) as mothers - consider other's wealth as dust (Have no intention to acquire other's wealth by any meanes) - and consider all the other living creatures like themselves (Equally love all the living creatures as one would love himself/herself)!

257

य: स्वभावो हि यस्यास्ति स नित्यं दुरतिक्रम: श्वा यदि क्रियते राजा तत् किं नाश्नात्युपानहम्

Whatever be the nature of a person, it is always very difficult to change. If a dog is appointed as King, even then he will not stop biting shoes. That is, he will keep on doing all the inferior things which he is otherwise used to.

258

नात्युच्चशिखरो मेरुर्नातिनीचं रसातलम् व्यवसायद्वितीयानां नात्यपारो महोदधि:

For a person who is seconded by activities (i.e. for a person who depends on his own efforts), peak of a mountain is not very high (is not hard to climb), bottom of earth (centre of earth) is not very deep and an ocean is not difficult to cross.

259

दूर्जन: परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलङ्कॄतोऽपि सन्ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
मणिना भूषित: सर्प: किमसौ न भयङ्कर:ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

One should avoid crooked person even if he/she is educated. Isn't snake adorned with gem, dangerous?

260

सुखमापतितंज्ञन्ब्स्प; सेव्यं दु:खमापतितं तथा |
चक्रवत् परिवर्तन्ते दु:खानि च सुखानि चज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

महाभारत

Take pleasure from the joys (in life) and also accept the sorrows; for joys and sorrows keep changing in a cycle.

261

अज्ञाम्प;ेभ्यो ग्रन्थिन:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; श्रेष्ठा: ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वरा: |
धारिभ्यो ज्ञाम्प;ानिन: श्रेष्ठा: ज्ञाम्प;ानिभ्यो व्यसायिन: ||

Those who can read books are better than the illiterates. Better than the readers of the book are those who also understand the meaning of the books. Better than those who understand the meaning of the books are the one who know / experience the supreme reality and even better are those who put in practice the knowledge that they have gained from the books!

262

उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां शथा खे पक्षिणां गति: |
तथैव ज्ञाम्प;ानकर्मभ्यां जायते परमं पदम् ||

योगवा| 117

Just as the bird can fly high with the help of it's two wings, in the same way with the help of knowledge ('dnyaana') and duly performance of one's own duties ('karma') - one can attain the supreme reality.

263

मनसा चिन्तितंकर्मं वचसा न प्रकाशयेत् |
अन्यलक्षितकार्यस्य यत: सिद्धिर्न जायते ||

If you are thinking of doing some work, don't tell it (to others). If others get to know it, it won't succeed. There are some people who talk a lot and don't do much. Perhaps this Subhashit is meant or such people. Subhashitkar is telling us to 'do' rather than 'tell' your intentions to other.

264

गतेर्भंग: स्वरो हीनो गात्रे स्वेदो महद्भयम्ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
मरणे यानि चि*नानि तानि चि*नानि याचके ||

Loosing balance while walking, talking in low voice (not able to talk properly), sweating, and fear, all this are signs found in a person who is about to die, same signs are found in yAchaka, i.e. a person who is asking help from others (a person who is dependent on others).

265

शुश्रूषा श्रवणं चैव ग्रहणं धारणं तथा |
उहापोहोर्थ विज्ञाम्प;ानं तत्वज्ञाम्प;ानं च धीगुणा: ||

Willing to listen, to actually listen, to understand what we listen, to be able to remember what we have listened, to be able to deduce some conclusions and put forth arguments, to be able to formalise and conclusively put forth the thought, knowledge of the around and Philosophy - these are the eight facets of 'buddhi'.

266

द्वयक्षरस् तु भवेत् मॄत्युर् , त्रयक्षरमं ब्रा*म शाश्वतम् |
'मम' इति च भवेत् मॄत्युर, 'नमम' इति च शाश्वतम् ||

महाभारत शांतिपर्व

'mR^ityu' (Death) is a two letter word while 'brahma' (The ultimate reality) - the non-perishable - is a three letter word. The word 'mama' (Mine) is also a two letter word and thus will lead you to 'mR^ityu' - but the word 'namama' (Not Mine) is a three letter word and will thus lead you to the 'brahma' (The ultimate reality)! Nothing in this world "is mine" - I am not the "owner/creator" of any thing in this world - "idam na mama" (This is not mine) - I am only an care taker or trustee of the so-called things owned by me! One should think and act keeping this in mind.

267

रविरपि न दहति तादॄग् यादॄक् संदहति वालुकानिकर: अन्यस्माल्लब्धपदो नीच: प्रायेण दु:सहो भवति

Direct Sun (light) does not burn us (our skin) as much as a hot sand dune does. (Similarly) A mediocre person who becomes great (or powerful) due to another person (like sand dune getting hot due to Sunlight) is often annoying.

268

क्वचिद्भूमौ शय्या क्वचिदपि पर्यङ्कशयनं ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; क्वचिच्छाकाहारी क्वचिदपि च शाल्योदनरुचि: क्वचित्कन्थाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्याम्बरधरो ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम्

Sometimes he will sleep on floor, sometimes on bed. Sometimes he will eat vegetables, sometimes rice and bread. Sometimes he will wear worn cloths, sometimes very rich cloths. A person who is dedicated for a certain cause/work is never bothered of (such external) difficulties of facilities. In short, a devoted person is unaffected by all the things which are not related to his cause.

269.

रामो राजमणि: सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे रामेणाभिहता निशाचरचमू रामाय तस्मै नम: रामान्नास्ति परायणं परतरं रामस्य दासोस्म्यहम् रामे चित्तलय: सदा भवतु मे भो राम मामुद्धर ||

रामरक्षा स्तोत्र

Rama, the jewel among the kings, Him I worship, by Him the hordes demons have been destroyed, to him is said my prayer, beyond Him there is nothing to be worshipped, His servant I am, my mind is totally absorbed in Him, O Ram, please lift me up. (The speciality of this verse from rAmarakSha is, it gives all the eight declensions of the singular word rAma. Hats off to the composer, Budhakaushik Rishi)

270

मनोजवं मारूततुल्यवेगं जितेन्द्रियं बुद्धिमतां वरिष्ठम् |
वातात्मजं वानरयूथमुख्यं श्रीरामदूतं शरणं प्रपद्ये ||

रामरक्षा स्तोत्र

I take refuge in the lord Hanuman who is as fast as the mind, equals his father, the wind-God, in speed, is the master of the senses, the foremost amongst the learned, the leader of the Monkey forces and the great messenger of Shri Rama .

271

आचाराल्लभते ह्मयु: आचारादीप्सिता: प्राजा: |
आचाराद्धनमक्षय्यम् आचारो हन्त्यलक्षणम् ||

मनु|4156

Good conduct gives long life, desired well-behaved progeny and ever-lasting wealth (i.e. prosperity). so also by good conduct other defects are destroyed. (i.e.They become ineffective.) The suBAshikAr wants to stress that achieving all the good things in the life does not depend on others but rather than on the 'individual' only! And the method is also very simple - "Good Conduct" !

272

शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत्कुलम् |
यत्रैतास्तु न शोचन्ति ह्मप्रासीदन्ति) वर्धते तद्धि सर्वदा ||

मनु| 357

The family in which women folks (such as mother, wife, sister, daughter etc.) are full of sorrow that family meets its destruction very soon; while the family in which thay have not to grieve is always prosperous. Gender equality etc. are the terms evolved in last few hundred years. But here in Hindu's ancient literature one can find not just dry words but sincere and pure feelings for making entire humankind happy.

273

अप्रकटीकॄतशक्ति: शक्तोपि जनस्तिरस्क्रियां लभते निवसन्नन्तर्दारुणि लङ्घ्यो व*िनर्न तु ज्वलित:

Strength of a powerful person is ignored if he does not show it to others (if others areunaware). As far as energy is stored in wood, no body is bothered about it. But when same wood starts burning, they are scared of that.

274

विक्लवो वीर्यहीनो य: स दैवमनुवर्तते वीरा: संभावितात्मानो न दैवं पर्युपासते

A powerless timid person believes in fortune (i.e. relies on external forces for his own progress). A powerful person with self esteem does not give any importance to fortune. This subhashita tells us that a person himself is responsible for whatever happens in his life. So he must 'act' if he wants to do any progress. He can not blame his fortune.

275

यथा वायुं समाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्वजन्तव: |
तथा गॄहस्थमाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्व आश्रमा: ||

मनु| 377

Just as, (in this world) all the (living) beings exist, depending on (with the help of) air (vAyu), in the same way, all the other stages of life (i.e. Ashramas) exist depending on the stage of a house-holder (i.e. Grhasthashrama).

276

नारीकेलसमाकारा _श्यन्तेपि हि सज्ज्ना: |
अन्ये बदरिकाकाश बहिरेव मनोहर: ||

The good ('sajjan') people are like a coconut - Harsh/Rough from outside but very soft and sweet from inside. In contrast the bad ('durjan') people are like berry - only soft from outside, but hard from inside! Just as coconut does not 'look' nice, the 'sajjan' people at first sight may seem to be harsh in their talk and attitude - But in reality their mind is pure. The 'durjan' people may 'look' nice with their sweet talk, but in their minds they will be crooked. What this suBAshita teaches us is that don't be 'nice' and 'good' in your external look - that is not important, but be 'nice'/'good'/'sweet'/'pure' from inside - from your mind. After all beauty is God given - whereas it is in one's hand to make one's mind more and more beautiful!

277

वॄत्तं यत्नेन संरक्षेद् वित्तमायाति याति च |
अक्षीणो वित्तत: क्षीणो वॄत्ततस्तु हतो हत: ||

One shall protect his 'sheela' (good character) with efforts (not his wealth), money can be earned and lost (i.e. money is not stable, you have it today tomorrow you may lose it). A wealthy person without a good character is as good as dead.

278

तर्काे प्रतिष्ठ: श्रुतयो विभिन्ना ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; नैको मुनिर्यस्य वच: प्रमाणम् धर्मस्य तज्ञल्त;वं निहितं गुहायां ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; महाजनो येन गत: स पन्था:

This is by Dharamaraja in Mahabharata. It tells us how difficult it is to decide what is good or bad. Logic is unstable (i.e. one can draw any conclusions depending on his knowledge and intelligence, and these conclusions may change greatly due to slight changes in available knowledge). Shruti or Veda will give different opinions (different Vedas will have conflicts over an issue). Every Rishi/Muni will have his own opinion, and there is nothing to believe that one is better than another. Philosophy of dharma is very difficult to understand. So, the path followed by great persons, is the right path.

279

सुखंज्ञन्ब्स्प; शेते सत्यवक्ता सुखंज्ञन्ब्स्प; शेते मितव्ययी |
हितभुक् मितभुक् चैव तथैव विजितेन्द्रिय: ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; चरक

The one who speaks truth, one who spends less, One who eats nutritional food in limited quantity and the one who has conquered the senses, gets peaceful sleep.

280

परित्यजेदर्थकामौ यौ स्यातां धर्मवर्जितौ |
धर्मं चाप्यसुखोदर्कं लोकनिकॄष्टमेव च ||

मनु

Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to Dharma (the sacred law); and even Dharma, which may cause pain in future (or result in pain in future) and is condemned by the people or is offensive to the people.

This suBAshita by Maharshi Manu proves the broad mindedness of the Hindu Culture. Ofcourse The 'Dharma' referred here is the 'Yuga-Dharma' and not the 'Sanatan' Dharma. This provision in our culture to frame the new 'Yuga-Dharma' which is relevant for that 'Yuga' (Period) is what has helped our culture to be always relevant in all the 'Yugas'. We don't say that the laws made by some 'great' person/'holy' book - one thousand years ago should be valid and implemented even today! The flowing water is always fresh while the still water develops insects and bacterias!

More on 'Dharma' in suBAshita Nos. 17,67,140,144,235.

281

श्रद्धाभक्तिसमायुक्ता नान्यकार्येषु लालसा: |
वाग्यता: शुचयश्चैव श्रोतार: पुण्यशालिन: ||

Those listeners only are meritorious, who have faith and devotion and have no further desire except grasping the subject, have control over their speech and are holy (or pure).

We ourselves may have commented many times on the speech of some Lecturer/'Kirtan-Kaar'/Social Workers/Good Politicians etc. and may have pointed out the mistakes in the speech and that of the person also! But this suBAshita is for Listeners! Without the qualities mentioned in the suBAshita, the listener or the seeker cannot really "Realize" or "Live" the Truth/Philosophy that the orator is trying to explain. Even being a Good Listener is so difficult!

282

भेदे गणा: विनश्येयु: भिन्नास्तु सुजया: परै: तस्मात् संघातयोगेन प्रयतेरन् गणा: सदा

In ancient India, there were states called 'gaNarAjya'. These states did not have any king, and were governed by government similar to present democracy. This subhashita is about such gaNarAjya. Whenever unity in unions (societies or gaNarAjya) is broken, they get destroyed, because if they are not united, it is easy for their enemies to conquer them. That's why unions (societies) should always try to be united. We can find many subhashitas in Sanskrit or in other Indian languages that tell us importance of unity in general, and with respect to defence. If we turn pages of our history, we will find that India was, and is, strong in all respects. But, we have a serious lacking, that is devoid of unity, which helps our enemies. Everyone of us should try to help our motherland by uniting our brothers.

283

परवाच्येषु निपुण: सर्वो भवति सर्वदा आत्मवाच्यं न जानीते जानन्नपि च मुह्मति

Every one is always expert in finding out (and talking about) falts/shortcommings of another person. He either does not know his own faults or even after knowing he keeps quiet about it.

284

गौरवं प्राप्यते दानात् न तु वित्तस्य संचयात् |
स्थिति: उच्चै: पयोदानां पयोधीनां अध: स्थिति: ||

Fame is obtained by donating (giving) money, not collecting it. Clouds (givers of water) have a high position whereas the seas (reservoirs of water) have a low position.

285

नारून्तुद: स्यादार्तोपि न परद्रोहकर्मधी: |
ययास्योद्विजते वाचा नालोक्यां तामुदीरयेत् ||

विदूरनीति

Let him not, even though pained by others (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter words, which would pain others and prevent him from gaining heaven.

286

कर्पूरधूलिरचितालवाल: कस्तूरिकापंकनिमग्ननाल:, गंगाजलै: सिक्तसमूलवाल: स्वीयं गुणं मुञ्चति किं पलाण्डु:

If an onion plant is grown in camphor bed, musk is used as a soil for it, or it is watered with Ganga-jala (the holiest of the waters), will it give up its characteristic pungent odour? The central idea is that a person's basic character remains the same, no matter what efforts you take to change him.

287

जलबिन्दुनिपातेन क्रमश: पूर्यते घट: स हेतु: सर्वविद्यानां धर्मस्य च धनस्य च

If water is added to a vessel drop by drop, it gets filled slowly. Similarly, knowledge, dharma (punnya, virtuous deeds), and wealth are to be earned slowly. This subhashita says that don't ever miss to gain a small amount of knowledge, dharma or wealth, because any small amount actually adds in your treasure.

288

सेवक: स्वामिनं द्वेष्टि कॄपणं परुषाक्षरम् आत्मानं किं स न द्वेष्टि सेव्यासेव्यं न वेत्ति य:

A servant hates his master if the master is miser and rough in talking. Why doesn't he hate himself as he can not judge who is worthy of serving and who is not? Normally people tend to blame the surroundings for their sufferings. Most of the times the cause of trouble is oneself and not his surroundings.

289

ऐक्यं बलं समाजस्य तदभावे स दुर्बल: तस्मात ऐक्यं प्रशंसन्ति दॄढं राष्ट्र हितैषिण:

Unity is the strength of any society and it (society) is weak without unity. Hence wellwishers of the nation strongly praise unity.

290

का त्वं बालेज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; कान्चनमाला कस्या: पुत्रीज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; कनकलताया: ||

हस्ते किं तेज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; तालीपत्रं का वा रेखाज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; क ख ग घ ||

Who are you, little girl ? : ( My name is) kAnchanamAlA. Whose daughter are you ? : ( I am the daughter of) kanakalatA. What is it in your hand ? : the palm-leaf ( used as a slate or writing pad). What is the written there (on it) ? (alphabets) ka kha ga gha

291

अप्यब्धिपानान्महत: सुमेरून्मूलनादपि |
अपि वहन्यशनात् साधो विषमश्चिज्ञल्त;ानिग्रह: ||

O good man! The control over mind is more difficult than drinking the water of entire ocean, uprooting the Meru mountain and also licking or eating the fire . (The control over the mind is more difficult than all the impossible things mentioned above). But then the question of how to make this impossible task - possible is unanswered by this subhaashita.

292

अधीत्य चतुरो वेदान् सर्वशास्त्राण्यनेकश: |
ब्रम्ह्मतत्वं न जानाति दर्वी सूपरसं यथा ||

Mere reading of the four vedas and all the shastras number of times, is not enough for obtaining the real knowledge of Brahman (Realisation of the supreme being), Just as a spoon in a vessel used for serving, does not get the taste of the thing served from that pot. (For realisation of highest principle, listening the shastras, meditating on them, and their constant study, observing of the restrictions etc. are necessary.)

293

यस्य चिज्ञल्त;ां निर्विषयं )दयं यस्य शीतलम् |
तस्य मित्रं जगत्सर्वं तस्य मुक्ति: करस्थिता ||

He, whose mind is free from objects of senses and whose heart is calm (free from passion, anger, greed etc.), entire world is his friend and liberation or emancipation is as if in his hand only. (He is as good as liberated).

294

अज्ञाम्प;ान तिमिरांधस्य ज्ञाम्प;ानांजन शलाकया चक्षुरुन्मिलितं येन तस्मै श्री गुरवे नम:

Salute to the guru, who opens eyes of a person blind due to darkness of ignorance, by knowledge (GYAna). Guru is one of the most honourable personalities in Indian (Hindu) tradition. This Subhashita demonstrates Guru's role in one's life. Difference between an ignorant person and a knowledgeable person is stated as difference between a blind and a person with normal eyesight. Guru is a person who gives sight to otherwise blind person. On the day of Ashaadh pournima (full moon day in Ashaadh month of Hindu calendar), called Guru pournima, Hindu's show their respect to their Guru by sacrificing something for him.

295

क्षमा शस्त्रं करे यस्य दुर्जन: किं करिष्यतिज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
अतॄणे पतितो वन्हि: स्वयमेवोपशाम्यति ||

What can a wicked person do to someone who has the weapon of fogivance in his hands ? Fire fallen on ground without any grass extinguishes by itself.

296

ग्रन्थानभ्यस्य मेघावी ज्ञाम्प;ान विज्ञाम्प;ानतत्पर: |
पलालमिव धान्यार्थी त्यजेत् सर्वमशेषत: ||

An intelligent man, eager to have knowledge and wisdom, studies the books and discards what is unimportant, grasping the essence (only) just as a farmer abandons useless husk completely and picks essential grains only.

297 असूयैकपदं मॄत्यु: अतिवाद: श्रियो वध: |
अशुश्रूषा त्वरा श्लाघा विद्याया: शत्रवस्त्रय: ||

In case of a student envy is (sudden) death, to much talking is the destruction of wealth. Unwillingness to serve, haste and boasting (or self-praise) these are enemies of learning.

298

नालसा: प्राप्नुवन्त्यर्थान न शठा न च मायिन: न च लोकरवाद्भीता न च शश्वत्प्रतीक्षिण:

A lazy person can never earn wealth (or he can never achieve any thing), neither a wicked person, nor a rogue. The one who worries about others' reactions about his deeds, and the one who waits for long time (for good opportunity) also can not earn wealth. A person must be very active, honest, loyal, confident and quick in actions, in order to achieve his goal.

299

दातव्यं भोक्तव्यंज्ञन्ब्स्प; धनविषये संचयो न कर्तव्य: |
पश्येह मधुकरीणां संचितार्थ हरन्त्यन्ये ||

It should be given(donated) or enjoyed and spent. As far as money is concerned it should never be stocked up. Look here, the collected savings of the bees are stolen by others.

300

या कुन्देन्दुतुषारहारधवला या शुभ्रवस्त्रावॄता , या वीणावरदण्डमण्डितकरा या श्वेतपद्मासना |
या ब्रह्माच्युतशङ्करप्रभॄतिभिर्देवै: सदा वन्दिता , सा मां पातु सरस्वती भगवती नि:शेषजाड्यापहाज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

The one who is as white (beautiful) as kundapushpa ( jasmine or lily flower-two from two different dictionaries), moon or a garland of dewdrops, whose attire is white, whose hand is decorated with Veena (a string instrument), who is sitting on a white lotus, who is always worshipped by Gods like BrahmA, VishNu and Mahesh, Let the Godess SaraswatI, who puts an end to lethargy, protect me!

301-400[सम्पाद्यताम्]

300

या कुन्देन्दुतुषारहारधवला या शुभ्रवस्त्रावॄता , या वीणावरदण्डमण्डितकरा या श्वेतपद्मासना |
या ब्रह्माच्युतशङ्करप्रभॄतिभिर्देवै: सदा वन्दिता , सा मां पातु सरस्वती भगवती नि:शेषजाड्यापहाज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

The one who is as white (beautiful) as kundapushpa ( jasmine or lily flower-two from two different dictionaries), moon or a garland of dewdrops, whose attire is white, whose hand is decorated with Veena (a string instrument), who is sitting on a white lotus, who is always worshipped by Gods like BrahmA, VishNu and Mahesh, Let the Godess SaraswatI, who puts an end to lethargy, protect me!

301

कस्यचित् किमपि नो हरणीयं मर्मवाक्यमपि नोच्चरणीयम् |
श्रीपते: पदयुगं स्मरणीयं लीलया भवजलं तरणीयम् ||

One should never steal others belongings. One should never utter a harsh word about another person (especially something which exposes his deficiencies). One should think about holy feet of Vishnu (one shold worship Vishnu from heart). If one does this, he can attain moksha easily.

302

‘महापुण्य उपकार है, महापाप अपकार’

परोपकार-पर उपकार का अर्थ है- ‘दूसरों के हित के लिये।’ परोपकार मानव का सबसे बड़ा धर्म है। स्वार्थ के दायरे से निकलकर व्यक्ति जब दूसरों की भलाई के विषय में सोचता है, दूसरों के लिये कार्य करता है। इसी को परोपकार कहते हैं।

भगवान सबसे बड़ा परोपकारी है जिसने हमारे कल्याण के लिये संसार का निर्माण किया। प्रकृति का प्रत्येक अंश परोपकार की शिक्षा देता प्रतीत होता है। सूर्य और चांद हमें जीवन प्रकाश देते हैं। नदियाँ अपने जल से हमारी प्यास बुझाती हैं। गाय भैंस हमारे लिये दूध देती हैं। बादल धरती के लिये झूम कर बरसता है। फूल अपनी सुगन्ध से दूसरों का जीवन सुगन्धित करते हैं।

परोपकार दैवी गुण है। इंसान स्वभाव से परोपकारी है। किन्तु स्वार्थ और संकीर्ण सोच ने आज सम्पूर्ण मानव जाति को अपने में ही केन्द्रित कर दिया है। मानव अपने और अपनों के चक्कर में उलझ कर आत्मकेन्द्रित हो गया है। उसकी उन्नति रूक गयी है। अगर व्यक्ति अपने साथ साथ दूसरों के विषय में भी सोचे तो दुनिया की सभी बुराइयाँ, लालच, ईर्ष्या, स्वार्थ और वैर लुप्त हो जायें।

महर्षि दधीचि ने राजा इन्द्र के कहने पर देवताओं की रक्षा के लिये अपने प्राणों की आहुति दे दी। उनकी हड्डियों से वज्र बना जिससे राक्षसों का नाश हुआ। राजा शिवि के बलिदान को कौन नहीं जानता जिन्होंने एक कबूतर की प्राण रक्षा के लिये अपने शरीर को काट काट कर दे दिया।

परोपकारी मनुष्य स्वभाव से ही उत्तम प्रवृति का होता है। उसे दूसरों को सुख देकर आनंद महसूस होता है। भटके को राह दिखाना, समय पर ठीक सलाह देना, यह भी परोपकार के काम हैं। सामर्थ्य होने पर व्यक्ति दूसरों की शिक्षा, भोजन, वस्त्र, आवास, धन का दान कर उनका भला कर सकता है।

परोपकार करने से यश बढ़ता है। दुआयें मिलती हैं। सम्मान प्राप्त होता है। तुलसीदास जी ने कहा है-

‘परहित सरिस धर्म नहिं भाई, पर पीड़ा सम नहीं अधभाई।’

जिसका अर्थ है- दूसरों के भला करना सबसे महान धर्म है और दूसरों की दुख देना महा पाप है। अतः हमें हमेशा परोपकार करते रहना चाहिए। यही एक मनुष्य का परम कर्तव्य है।

200 शब्दों में निबंध

परोपकार शब्द का अर्थ है दूसरों का उपकार यानि औरों के हित में किया गया कार्य. हमारी ज़िंदगी में परोपकार का बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है. यहाँ तक कि प्रकृति भी हमें परोपकार करने के हजारों उदाहरण देती है जैसा कि इस दोहे में भी बताया गया है कि :-
“वृक्ष कभू नहीं फल भखे, नदी न संचय नीर,
परमारथ के कारने, साधुन धरा शरीर”
वृक्ष अपने फल स्वयं कभी नहीं खाते, नदियां अपना जल स्वयं कभी नहीं इकठ्ठा करती, इसी प्रकार सज्जन पुरुष परमार्थ के कामों यानि परोपकार के लिए ही जन्म लेते हैं.

हमें भी प्रकृति से प्रेरणा लेकर ऐसे कार्य करने चाहिए जिनसे किसी और का भला हो. अपने लिए तो सभी जीते हैं किन्तु वह जीवन जो औरों की सहायता में बीते, सार्थक जीवन है.

उदाहरण के लिए किसान हमारे लिए अन्न उपजाते हैं, सैनिक प्राणों की बाजी लगा कर देश की रक्षा करते हैं. परोपकार किये बिना जीना निरर्थक है. स्वामी विवेकानद, स्वामी दयानन्द, गांधी जी, रविन्द्र नाथ टैगोर जैसे महान पुरुषों का जीवन परोपकार की एक जीती जागती मिसाल है. ये महापुरुष आज भी वंदनीय हैं.

तुलसीदास जी ने कहा है कि :-
“परहित सरिस धर्म नहीं भाई, परपीड़ा सम नहीं अधमाई”


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