1 Zulkilkree

Josef Szombathy Bibliography Website

The Venus of Willendorf, now known in academia as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11.1-centimetre (4.4 in) high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE.[1] It was found in 1908 by a workman named Johann Veran[2] or Josef Veram[3] during excavations conducted by archaeologistsJosef Szombathy, Hugo Obermaier and Josef Bayer at a paleolithic site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria near the town of Krems.[4][5] It is carved from an ooliticlimestone that is not local to the area, and tinted with red ochre. The figurine is now in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.[6]

Several similar statuettes and other forms of art have been discovered, and they are collectively referred to as Venus figurines, although they pre-date the mythological figure of Venus by millennia.

Dating

After a wide variety of proposed dates, following a revised analysis of the stratigraphy of its site in 1990, the figure was estimated to have been carved 24,000–22,000 BCE,[4] but more recent estimates have pushed the date back "slightly" to between about 28,000 and 25,000 BCE.

It is believed that the figure was carved during the Paleolithic Period, also known as the "Old Stone Age". This period of Prehistory started around 30,000 BCE.[5]

Interpretation and purpose

Very little is known about its origin, method of creation, or cultural significance; however, it is one of numerous Venus figurines or representations of female figures surviving from the Paleolithic period.[7]

The purpose of the carving is the subject of much speculation. Like many figurines, it never had feet and does not stand on its own, though it might have been pegged into soft ground. Parts of the body associated with fertility and childbearing have been emphasized, leading researchers to believe Venus of Willendorf may have been used as a fertility goddess.[7] The figure has no visible face, her head being covered with circular horizontal bands of what might be rows of plaited hair or a type of headdress.[8] Alternatively, the head may have simply been textured for use as a handle. This is especially likely if the figure were intended for ecstatic-state fertility rituals or even as a masturbation aid.

The nickname, urging a comparison to the classical image of "Venus", is now controversial. According to Christopher Witcombe, "the ironic identification of these figurines as 'Venus' pleasantly satisfied certain assumptions at the time about the primitive, about women, and about taste".[9] Catherine McCoid and LeRoy McDermott hypothesised that the figurines may have been created as self-portraits by women. They speculated that the complete lack of facial features could be accounted for by the fact that sculptors did not own mirrors, though Michael S. Bisson responded that water pools and puddles served as readily available natural mirrors for Paleolithic humans.[10]

See also

References

  1. ↑ Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf), Smarthistory
  2. Antl-Weiser, Walpurga. "The anthropomorphic figurines from Willendorf"(PDF). Niederösterreichischen Landesmuseum,. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  3. ↑ Geoffrey Bibby (1956) The Testimony of the Spade, p.139, Alfred A. Knoff, New York
  4. 1 2 Venus of Willendorf Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, 2003.
  5. 1 2 John J Reich; Lawrence Cunningham (2013) Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities, 8th Ed., Andover, Belmont, CA ISBN 978-1-133-95122-3
  6. ↑ Witcombe, Christopher (2003) Venus of Willendorf, retrieved 2008
  7. 1 2 Lawrence Cunningham; John J Reich (2006). Culture and values : a survey of the humanities. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-1-133-94533-8. 
  8. ↑ "Woman from Willendorf". Her headdress replicates shell formations. Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe. 2003. "The rows are not one continuous spiral but are, in fact, composed in seven concentric horizontal bands that encircle the head and two more horizontal bands underneath the first seven on the back of the head."
  9. ↑ "Name". Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, 2003.
  10. ↑ "Self-Representation in Upper Paleolithic Female Figurines". Current Anthropology, Vol. 37, No. 2, April., 1996. pp. 227–275.

External links

Coordinates: 48°19′N15°23′E / 48.317°N 15.383°E / 48.317; 15.383

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Venus of Willendorf



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The Venus of Willendorf


The Venus of Willendorf is a superbly crafted sculpture of a naked obese woman from the stone age. It is made of oolitic limestone, and was covered with red ochre when found. The vulva is particularly well carved, by someone with a good knowledge of anatomy. The feet are rendered as very small, with no indication of ankles. Opinion is divided about the pattern around the head. Some say it is braided hair, others say it is a woven (or crocheted) hat pulled low over the face. There is evidence for woven textiles from that time. It could also be basketry.



The Venus of Willendorf was carved from oolitic limestone, and was covered with a thick layer of red ochre when found. The figurine was unearthed during the Wachau railway constructionin 1908.

Age: 30 000 - 27 000 BPPhoto: Vienna Natural History Museum Postcard



I spent some time in the Vienna Natural History Museum one day in September 2008. This is the best image of the Venus of Willindorf from that session.

Opinion is divided about the pattern around the head.

Some say it is braided hair, others say it is a woven (or crocheted!)hat pulled low over the face. There is evidence for woven textilesfrom that time. It could also be basketry. Note the "golf ball" venus (at the bottom of the page on the link) from Kostienki, which is a head totally covered with basketry, and thesimilar full figure with the head almost covered in a similar texture.

But all agree that it is deliberate, to hide the face. The question is, why?

All sorts of theories have been put forward - that it is an anonymousfemale, or that it is the earth mother, whose face not only cannot be seen, but must not be seen.

All conjecture, and your guess is as good as anyone else's.

The thick circles at the top of the breasts of the Willendorf venusare vestigial arms. If you look at the figure closely, you can see thematchstick arms starting at the shoulders, and continuing down thebody and across the breasts. Look closer still, and you can seebangles or arm ornaments at the wrists. Even hands with fingers areindicated.

Depending on your browser, you may have to click on this image a coupleof times to see it at full magnification.

Photo: Don Hitchcock, 2008

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum





Venus of Willendorf.

Photo: Don Hitchcock, 2015

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum







View from the site of the discovery of the Venus of Willendorf, Willendorf II. The Venusium museum is the red walled, dark tiled roof structure below the railway track on the right.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008



View of the Willendorf II site, from the cycle track, the Radweg, along the Danube.

From this viewpoint we can see the flags that mark the spot, and the shelter for the information boards and the actual profile cut into the loess.

The railway line may be seen a little below the flags and shelter.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008






Willendorf on the Donau, where the Venus of Willendorf was discovered, viewed from a ship on the Donau.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2000










'Lösswand bei Willendorf' (Loess cliff at Willendorf), a painting of Willendorf on the Danube by Hugo Darnaut before the railway was constructed, and before the venus was discovered.

Photo: Antl-Weiser (2008a)






View of the Wachau valley in the Willendorf area, view from southeast. Indicated in red are the sites:
Willendorf I (WI), Willendorf I Nord (WI-Nord), Willendorf II (WII), Willendorf III (WIII), Willendorf IV (WIV), Willendorf V (WV), Willendorf VI (WVI), and Willendorf VII (WVII).

Photo: T. Bence Viola, Graphic: Philip R. Nigst
Source and text: Nigst et al., 2008


The eastern bank of the Danube Valley is formed by cliffy and steep slopes. The western bank shows flatter slopes because of the loess accumulation in the lee of the dominating winds from the west.

Further, large alluvial fans, formed by streams from the hinterland (e.g. Willendorfer Bach) transporting large amounts of material into the Danube Valley, are recognised on this western bank. The deposits of the site Willendorf II are lying on top of a lower terrace of the Danube.

The Palaeolithic layers are found in the upper half of the about 20 metre thick deposits. The site is part of the Willendorf site cluster, a total of 8 sites are known: Willendorf I, Willendorf I North, and Willendorf II to VII.

Text above: Nigst et al., 2008




During the Upper Palaeolithic, ice age hunters used the slopes of the Danube valley repeatedly. The area around the left bank of the Danube between Aggsbach and Krems along with the tributary valleys to the west and north of the Danube valley was an important habitat for ice age man living in the east of what is now Austria. The Palaeolithic settlements between Willendorf and Schwallenbach are located in a somewhat broader section of the Wachau on the west bank of the Danube. Nussberg, the hill to the west, sheltered the settlement near Willendorf from westerly winds. From very early on, the Danube connected eastern and western Europe and was of particular significance for cultural contacts and the ongoing development of Palaeolithic cultures.

The four lower excavation levels at Willendorf reveal early Upper Palaeolithic or Aurignacian settlements, while the five levels above originated in the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic period during the Gravettian culture. Both of these cultures are named after archaeological sites in France.


Text above from a display at the Venusium, the Museum at Willendorf devoted to the Venus of Willendorf and its discovery.



The Vienna Natural History Museum, in which the Venus of Willendorf is on display.

Photo: Don Hitchcock, 2008




Although available light does not give good resolution, it shows sculptural forms clearly.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon, available light

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum







A series of photographs in rotational sequence

Photos below by Don Hitchcock 2008
Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum

















Showing the decoration on top of the head.




Smaller photographs









Images with good depth of field, but with less detail















Working traces between belly and thighs

At the middle of the body it appears that breast, belly and the thighs were first modelled by deep vertical scratching. These scratches were smoothed by horizontal scraping. At the thighs horizontal traces are overlain by vertical ones.

A view of the Venus of the left thigh shows scraping traces at the breast as well as the horizontal traces on the belly and the vertical ones on the thighs.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)




The working traces on the thigh are more easily seen on this photograph of the right thigh.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon, img_1472








The knee was produced by vertical scratching which first diminished the size of the thighs. There is an overlay of clear horizontal scratches.

Beneath the knee there are again vertical scratches

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)




These vertical scratches below the knee on the calf may be more easily seen in this photograph.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon, img_1472








Crossing traces of working at the back.

A view to the back of the figurine shows traces of horizontal smoothing and parts where horizontal traces are overlain by vertical ones. The same scheme is to be seen at the back side of the thighs.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)








The venus of Willendorf was once covered with red ochre, and presumably it was removed during the process of 'cleaning up' for display in a museum.

Here we can see traces left, especially in the depressions left in the head ornamentation, and in the grooves outlining parts of the figurine.

Photo(left): Antl-Weiser (2008a)
Photo (right): Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon
Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum








The vulva is well defined in the figurine, though not grotesquely enlarged as in some other venus figurines such as Monpazier.

Photo: (left) Kern et al. (2008)

Photo: (right) Don Hitchcock 2008





Venus of Willendorf posters. When I arrived in Viena in September 2008, there were posters advertising the Venus of Willendorf everywhere.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon







Venus of Willendorf II



Venus of Willendorf II

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Pentax

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum






In 1926 Bayer found the Venus II from Willendorf in a hole which had been dug into the sequence of cultural layers by clandestine excavators. In 1927 he made a systematic excavation on this spot.

In the course of this excavation he found the evidence of a deep pit which was dug from layer 9 down to layer 5. The pit contained bones from mammoth and a jaw of a mammoth.

Bayer (1930)) reports that the original position of the ivory figurine Venus II was on top of the jaw. The head of the only roughly cut figurine is broken off.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)




Venus of Willendorf II

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum








Venus of Willendorf II

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon

Source: Facsimile in the Vienna Natural History Museum








Side View.

The front view shows that the sculpture is slightly twisted in the middle of the body. The area of the shoulder is well modelled. Below the neck on the left side of the breast there is a rather indistinct structure possibly representing the left arm.

Between belly and thighs there is only a roughly cut depression. The back of the figurine seems unmodified, only the transition from the bottom to the legs is clearly cut. In the area of the shanks the separation between left and right leg is clear.

The Venus II is rather roughly cast in most parts, only the shoulders and the legs seem well modelled. Perhaps it was left unfinished when the head broke off.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)




Venus of Willendorf II reconstruction.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon

Source: Vienna Natural History Museum







Venus of Willendorf III







The so called Venus III from Willendorf is certainly a modified piece of ivory but was often doubted to be a figurine . Only the side view gives an illusion of the shape of a human sculpture possibly with head, bottom, feet, belly and neck.

In ethnological contexts wooden pieces are used as puppets but would never be recognised as such without a description. Thus we cannot be sure what the piece meant to the ice age hunter, although there are too few indications to classify the piece as figurine from a formal point of view.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)




Venus of Willendorf III

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Pentax

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum




Venus of Willendorf III

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon

Source: Original in the Vienna Natural History Museum




Venus of Willendorf III

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008, Canon

Source: Facsimile in the Vienna Natural History Museum






Venus of Willendorf II and III

Photo: Matthias cable

Date: 14th January 2007

Permission: GNU Free Documentation License







The stone used for the Venus of Willendorf

The dumpling in the ice

Matthias Schulz, Schulz (2008)


The geologist Alexander Binsteiner made a thorough study of the venus of Willendorf and the stone used to make it.

Five times the precious object was removed from its alarmed display case and placed under the microscope.



Researchers Antl-Weiser and Binsteiner with the Venus of Willendorf.

Photo: Schulz (2008)




Scratches and the traces of tools show that the nearly 11 cm high statuette was shaped with a flint tool. A hair net or braided cap covers her head. On the upper right arm are horizontal notches. Traces of colour show that she was originally covered with red ochre, which had ritual significance, since the dead were routinely covered in the same substance.

The piece is made of a rare oolitic (stone eggs) limestone. The structure of this material means that sometimes small round pock marks appear on the surface when one of the spheres falls out.

'One of these unsightly dents has been skilfully used by the artist to indicate a navel' said Binsteiner, and the sculpture was, for him, a 'brilliant performance'.

Particularly striking was that even the quarry from which the sculptor once took the stone for the figurine was eventually able to be found after a long search.

The raw material came from Stránská skála.



When hunting horses before 18 000 years ago, hunters used the steep north walls and the gradual slope on the other side of Stransky rocks, Stránská skála, near Brno, to drive the horses over the cliff. At that time Dolní Věstonice was not inhabited.

Source: Display, Dolní Věstonice Museum

Artist: Unknown

Text: Translated and adapted from the display.






Stránská skála is an isolated limestone hill, situated about 5 km north and east of the centre of Brno. It is 1.5 km long, almost 400 m wide, and lies 310 m above sea level. While the southeastern slope is quite moderate, and passes gradually into a plain, the northwestern boundary is steep, the limestone walls falling vertically into the valley.



Text accompanying the photo above is adapted from Musil (1968)

Photo: Onovy
Permission: GFDL and cc-by-sa-2.5
Source: Wikipedia




On the hilltop, as large as a child's head, lie boulders of oolitic limestone. One of these was picked up to make the Venus.

Binsteiner estimated that the time needed to make the venus was about 10 to 20 hours. 'From there, the small sculpture was taken 130 km to the Danube near Willendorf. Such distances were not unusual for the nomads of the Gravettian.

In parkas and shoes cushioned with grass, they trudged through the icy landscape. They were armed with spear throwers, and long stone blades hung from their belts.

Climatic data from Greenland ice cores show that the hunting band initially lived in abundance. The weather was cold but dry. A treeless tundra stretched before them. At the end of March the rain melted the thin layer of snow, and fresh green shoots of grass and herbs sprang up. This provided an abundance of food for large herds of mammoth and bison, giant deer and saiga antelope. What a meat supply!

The groups were partially settled, with women, infants and craftsmen in one location, while the hunters spread over large areas of the landscape looking for game. In the settlements the venus figures were found. Many were hidden in the dwellings, some were buried in small pits. But what ceremonies lie behind the fat women? The artists showed them naked, sometimes with jewellery such as necklaces or bands of clothing, sometimes with bangles on their arms. The statues were not erotica for lonely men. Not all were portrayed as provocative and naturalistic. Many were quite abstract in style. Who or what were they intended to evoke?

The Venus of Lespugue in southern france is particularly interesting in this respect. The globular, large breasts dangle from the body, the buttocks are like footballs. The work could have come from a modern artist, and it was obviously not about prurient sex, but about reproduction.






The Site of the Discovery of the Venus of Willendorf


Hugo Obermaier and Josef Szombathy on the left and centre photographs, with Josef Bayer pictured at the centre of the excavations where the Venus of Willendorf was found, on the right photograph.

Willendorf had already been known as a Palaeolithic site for over 20 years when, in 1908, systematic excavations by Szombathy, Bayer and Obermaier began.


By the 1870s at the latest, the owner of the Brunner brickyard at Willendorf had found flint tools there. Leopold Koch and Ferdinand Brun learned of these finds in late 1883. Brun had noticed bones at the surface of the Brunner brickyard on several occasions. He carried out initial archaeological investigations in 1884. At the end of the 1880s, bones were discovered during digging for a new clay pit on the Ebner property. Ludwig Hans Fischer carried out excavations of this site in 1890. Remains of human skeletons were reported to have been discovered while digging for clay between 1904 and 1905.

( It should thus be realised that the region was already well known to contain palaeolithic artefacts well before the construction of the railway, which, however, greatly facilitated the search for these artefacts - Don )

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2008
Source: Venusium, the museum at Willendorf. © NHM Wien
Text: Display at Venusium, the museum at Willendorf.




Willendorf II, 7th August 1908: discovery of the Venus I of Willendorf. The man standing at the findspot of the figurine is J. Bayer.

Johann Veran, one of the workers, found the statuette. Szombathy, who stood nearest to Veran, saw the figurine first and showed it to Bayer, who worked not far away from Veran. Szombathy took some photographs of the situation, as shown here.

(This photo shows more of the site than the one on the right, above - Don )

Photo: J. Szombathy; © Archive of the Department of Prehistory, Museum of Natural History, Vienna; nr. 4796)
Source: Nigst et al., 2008
Additional text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)






Szombathy’s diary

Obermaier excavating further to the west heard of the find in the evening because Szombathy and Bayer didn’t want the public to take notice of the find. The molestation by various private collectors was already big enough.

Obermaier wrote about this moment of finding that all of them, the workers, Bayer and he himself, were excavating in a line when the figurine was found. Therefore it was not unusual that at that very moment neither of them – neither Bayer nor Obermaier – was overseeing the worker Veran at the moment of discovery. This passage led to doubts that the finding had been documented adequately, but Obermaier did not mean that they had not been at the site when the Venus was found. He only said that none of them stood behind Veran, because all of them were working.

Only Szombathy went along this line of workers and saw the figurine near Veran or perhaps even watched Veran unearthing the Venus. There are two authentic statements which support the above mentioned interpretation of Obermaier’s passage about the finding. Although Obermaier’s diary has been lost in Freiburg in Switzerland, we have a handwritten transcript of some parts of the diary written by Felgenhauer.

Obermaier wrote in his diary that Veran had found the Venus. He also mentioned the names of the eye witnesses: Szombathy and Bayer. The second statement was made by Szombathy on his visit on the 7th of August in Willendorf. He wrote the following note into his diary:

'Dr. Bayer and Dr. Obermaier are busily excavating layer II/7. They have already finished half of it. Layer 7 contains some dark spots and in one place a 40 cm deep hearth. (FA-PA, Willendorf) Photo 5 and 6 findspot from the north'

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)






Map of the (future) Willendorf digs I, II and III by Bayer on 19th May 1908.

( An old excavation is shown here in red, but three new cultural layers, discovered on May 11 1908, as a result of walking the newly dug foundations for the railway, are shown in green - Don )


As early as 1904, Szombathy had made a drawing of the Grossensteiner brickyard and noted that the Wachaubahn railway would pass just above or below it. Excavation for the railway began in January of 1908.

On January 18, Josef Bayer published an appeal to the population of the Wachau to be watchful for any finds made in the loess.

He also informed Szombathy that the excavation work had already touched on levels of finds from the Palaeolithic period. Szombathy then charged Hugo Obermaier and Josef Bayer with observing the excavation work.



( The researchers were thus already working as time and money allowed on the site, but seized the advantage to their studies when the railway decided to give them, in effect, a very large bonus for their excavation costs, as well as greatly extending the area of research.

As one can see from the photos on this page of the discoveries, the site was dug out and levelled to a huge extent for the railway, something which the researchers could usually never hope to do - all they could manage before that was pay for one or two trenches and sondages (pits) at likely places. The railway construction meant that their timetable had to be speeded up, and took on some of the aspects of a rescue mission. The construction carried both advantages and disadvantages. It might well help uncover archaeological sites, but it equally could destroy them if strenuous efforts were not made to make sure that anything of interest was rescued and meticulously recorded.

The levelling for the railway showed up artefacts such as bones and lithic materials themselves, as well as discoloured areas in the otherwise very uniformly coloured loess that indicated that humans had been there, changing the colour of the loess with their hearths and detritus. This allowed the researchers to do their digging at the most likely spots.

My thanks to Sarah Brazier for her help in clarifying this section - Don 
)




On May 11 the two of them followed the railway bed from Krems to Willendorf and noted three additional archaeological sites ( shown in green on the hand drawn map above - Don ) besides the former brickyard.

They purchased some of the finds and made sketches of the sites. In early June, an engineer of the imperial railway construction authority named Kann reported finds from the railway bed to the central commission in Vienna. Szombathy carried out negotiations with Kann and Albus, the subcontractor from Groisbach who was supplying tools and labour. On July 22 he summoned Bayer and Obermaier to Willendorf on July 29.

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2008

Source: Venusium, the museum at Willendorf. © NHM Wien

Text: Display at Venusium, the museum at Willendorf.





Plan of the excavation at Willendorf I in 1908 with the position of the figurine.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)







Bayer’s description of the layers in 1909, which is presumed to be information for Szombathy’s speech in Potsdam in that year.

Photo and text: Antl-Weiser (2008a)





Josef Bayer on the 7th August 1908 on the level where the Venus of Willendorf was discovered.

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2008

Source: Venusium, the museum at Willendorf. © NHM Wien






The site of the dig at Willendorf.


On the morning of August 7, Josef Szombathy arrived in Willendorf on a routine visit. He and Josef Bayer were present when a worker, Johann Veran, discovered the Venus of Willendorf. Hugo Obermaier learned of the find only later, in the course of the day. In 1925 Hugo Obermaier wrote to his friend Menghin, head of the Institute of Prehistory and Early History at Vienna University, that no one had been present when the statue had actually been found. He and Bayer had been occupied with excavating the levels. Szombathy alone had gone from one worker to another and noticed the object lying among the finds made by Veran.

Obermaier's letter became a source of later speculation. Some suspected that none of the three researchers had actually been at the excavation site when the Venus had been found. This may be ruled out, however, since Obermaier himself also wrote that he and Bayer had been working above and Szombathy had been observing their work.

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2008

Source: Venusium, the museum at Willendorf. © NHM Wien

Text: Display at Venusium, the museum at Willendorf.



The site of the dig at Willendorf.

The people in the photo are standing at the place where the Venus figures were found. The person in the foreground is standing at the site where the Venus I was found, and the person in the background is standing at the site where the Venus II was found.


Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2008

Source: Venusium, the museum at Willendorf. © NHM Wien

Text: My translation of the caption on the photograph.






View of Willendorf I, I-North, and II from the eastern bank of the Danube in 1908 after the completion of the railroad.

Photo: Szombathy; © Archive of the Department of Prehistory, Museum of Natural History, Vienna; nr. 4777)
Source: Nigst et al., 2008





Human thighbone, Willendorf I.

Age: 24 000 BP.

This looks like a facsimile.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008
Source: Vienna Natural History Museum.





Human jaw, Willendorf II.

Age: 24 000 BP.

This looks like a facsimile.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008
Source: Natural History Museum of Vienna





Willendorf II, layers 1 (1-2) and 2 (3-5).

1. retouched flake
2. core
3. bec (nosed end scraper)
4. sidescraper
5. denticulate

Layer 1 contains only three artifacts, all undiagnostic. Their characters did not allow us to specify a chrono-cultural attribution.

Layer 2 yielded a slightly more important assemblage, which, nevertheless, is insufficient for a real typo-technological characterization. The Vienna collections contain 41 pieces corresponding to 32 tools, 7 unretouched blades and 2 cores. Blade debitage seems to be exclusive and there is no clear evidence of a specific flake production.

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