Pakistan Movement Essay
Students are the most energetic and enthusiastic segment of a society. These young, lively, active, dynamic and vigorous men and women have high ambition and goals, and are also blessed with the energy to fulfil their dreams. Almost all the great revolutions of the modern world have the youth or student factor in common. The creation of Pakistan too had many contributors who played a vital role in the Freedom Movement but the role of students, unquestionably, had been remarkable throughout.
There is no denying the fact that the credit for introducing the educational reforms, and awakening the Muslims of the Subcontinent, mostly goes to the great Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. He was so impressive in his efforts that political stalwarts of the Subcontinent acknowledged his efforts. For instance, Allama Iqbal said:
“The real greatness of the man (Sir Syed) consists in the fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it.”
When there was the introduction of new education system in India, the Muslims, unlike the Hindus, rejected this modern system. They resisted change and remained stuck to their own traditional studies. The War of Independence of 1857 proved to be a seminal event in the history of India, and a watershed moment for the reformers like Sir Syed. The War had huge impact on the region in political, economic, social and academic fields and also changed the Muslims’ viewpoint towards education. At this critical juncture in the history of Indian Muslims, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan realized that the miseries of the Muslims could only be curtailed by achieving modern education. Sir Syed clearly foresaw the imperative need for the Muslims to acquire proficiency in the English language and modern sciences if the community were to maintain its social and political identity, particularly in Northern India. With this vision in mind, he founded the Aligarh Madarasa, in 1875, which was later given the status of Mohammeden Anglo Oriental (MAO) College, in 1877. The students of this institution were strikingly different from the rest; and this change marked the emergence of a new trend in the lives of the Muslims of the Subcontinent, who were destined to play a significant role in the Freedom Movement. Maulvi Abdul Haq rightly said:
‘People say Sir Syed Ahmed Khan set up a college; nay. He made a nation’.
This was a period of tumult in the Subcontinent as the rift between the Hindus and the Muslims was continuously widening and all the initiatives taken for the unity between the two communities remained futile. It was only the stubbornness of the Congress that led to the formation of a separate political platform for the Indian Muslims. Similarly, the biasness of the All-India Student Federation (AISF), which was also known as ‘Baby of the Congress’, resulted in the creation of All-India Muslim Students Federation (AIMSF) that was formed on January 17, 1936, with Mohammad Wasiq as its General Secretary and Mohammad Noman as Organising Secretary. The constitution of this organisation was presented on December 29, 1937, in a conference held in Calcutta which focused on uniting and organising the Muslim students nationwide, to arouse political consciousness amongst them, to work for the betterment and advancement of the social and economic condition of Muslims, to popularise Islamic culture and faith, to have friendly relations amongst different communities of India and to promote cooperation between the Muslim students of India and rest of the world.
The biasness of the All-India Student Federation (AISF), which was also known as ‘Baby of the Congress’, resulted in the creation of All-India Muslim Students Federation (AIMSF) that was formed on January 17, 1936, with Mohammad Wasiq as its General Secretary and Mohammad Noman as Organising Secretary.
Despite facing various issues in initial years, such as lack of skilled individuals, shortage of funds and absence of strong leadership, the students stood up for the rights of Muslims of the Subcontinent. Muslim students of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Bengal, Assam, Bombay, Bihar, Central Provinces (CP), Delhi, Madras, Orissa, United Province (UP) and Banglore had their own Muslim Student Federations (MSF) who worked day in and day out for the struggle of Pakistan Movement. It was noteworthy to witness both Muslim men and women participating in this great effort.
Muslim Girls’ Student Federation was set up with Begum Ikramullah, appointed as its convener. Regardless of the cultural barrier, many female students worked enthusiastically and helped in arousing political consciousness among Muslim women.
The Freedom Movement gained momentum in the early 40’s and so did the students’ activities. Muslim students worked socially, intellectually, journalistically and politically to serve the national goal. Their enthusiasm reflects in the titles they used before their names such as Khadim-e-Pakistan and Mujahid-e-Pakistan. They also interacted with the common people of different villages and towns, giving them political awareness. A Pakistan rural propaganda committee was set up by the Punjab MSF to carry the League’s message to the villagers. Summer schools were held in various colleges and universities to enlighten the students regarding the political situation. Fund—raising was also an important activity carried out by the students to financially help Muslim League in the upcoming elections of 1945. The students not only worked in their respective areas but also helped their brothers in other provinces, forming an inter-province cooperation. One such incident was when the students from different provinces went to join the civil disobedience movement in Punjab. The students of Bihar were engaged in the relief operation and organised rehabilitation of the riot-affected people suffering from disastrous communal riots in the province, during October 1946. A Red Crescent hospital was set up as well, by the Madras MSF, in 1946, which besides providing the treatment to the injured also gave first-aid training. The students used intellectual front as a significant source for propagating Quaid’s vision, for which various conferences, camps, symposia, literacy campaign, elocution contests, cultural and educational activities and study circles were organised by MSF, which turned out to be very helpful.
The journals and pamphlets, published by different MSFs, also played a key role in this regard. The AIMSF decided to publish a quarterly journal, shortly after their first session in 1937. The journal was titled ‘Awakening,’ and its Urdu version, ‘Bedari,’ was edited by Hasan Ahmad Razi. Another official journal was published by Surat MSF in 1942 named ‘The Crescent,’ which was available in three languages: English, Urdu and Gujrati. ‘Souvenir’ and ‘Muslim Times’ were published by the CP and Berar MSF from Nagpur. The UP MSF brought about the ‘Spirit of Youth’ in 1942. All these journals promoted the objectives of Muslim League and its leaders and this effort of the students was no doubt an important contribution to the national cause.
The political role of Muslim students was a valuable contribution towards the independence of Pakistan. As the time drew closer for the elections of 1945-46, the activities of the students grew faster. Hundreds of trained volunteers were appointed for different duties in the election campaign, as well as for the election day. This time, too, they had to face enormous difficulties in the form of police and official interference. Furthermore, they had a tough time in Hindu-majority areas too where they were abused and stoned. But, nothing could distract them from achieving their goal and ultimately their struggles, effort, sincerity and hard work resulted in the creation of Pakistan.
The students were supported, trusted and guided by the Quaid-i-Azam throughout the Movement. He believed and proved that youth is a Pakistan asset which, if handled properly, can be of great advantage to the nation.
The prevailing situation in our country is quite tragic as the leaders are mishandling and manipulating the youth for their personal or party interest, whereas Quaid-i-Azam utilised this great asset particularly for the national interest. He once said: ‘I insist you to strive. Work, work and only work for satisfaction with patience, humbleness and serve thy nation’. We have in this quotation a solution to transform our youth from a liability to an asset, as AllamaIqbal said:
Nahi hai na-umeed Iqbal apni kisht-e-veera’n se
Zara num ho to yeh mitti buhat zarkhez hai saqi!
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان – Taḥrīk-i Pākistān) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The leadership of the movement was educated at Aligarh Muslim University. From the Aligarh Movement the Indian Muslim community developed a secular political identity. The Pakistan Movement progressed within India alongside the Indian independence movement, but the Pakistan Movement sought to establish a new nation-state that protected the religious identity and political interests of Muslims in South Asia.
Urdu poets such as Iqbal and Faiz used literature, poetry and speech as a powerful tool for political awareness.
The driving force behind the Pakistan Movement were the Muslims in the Muslim minority provinces of United Province and Bombay Presidency rather than the Muslims from the Muslim majority provinces.
History of the movement
Main articles: 1600 in India, British Raj, Anglomania, and Anglo-Saxons
During this time, Lord Macaulay's radical and influential educational reforms led to the numerous changes to the introduction and teaching of Western languages (e.g. English and Latin), history, and philosophy. Religious studies and the Arabic, Turkish, and Persian languages were completely barred from the state universities. In a short span of time, the English language had become not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835 in place of Persian, disadvantaging those who had built their careers around the latter language.
Traditional Hindu and Islamic studies were no longer supported by the British Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their waqf (lit. financial endowment).
Main articles: Aligarh Movement, Urdu movement, Aligarh Muslim University, Two-nation theory, and University of the Punjab
Eventually, many Muslims barred their children to be educated at English universities which had proved to be disastrous for the Muslim communities. Very few Muslim families had their children sent at the English universities. On the other hand, the effects of Bengali renaissance made the Hindus population to be more educated and gained lucrative positions at the Indian Civil Service; many ascended to the influential posts in the British government.
Rise of organised movement
The success of All India Muhammadan Educational Conference as a part of the Aligarh Movement, the All-India Muslim League, was established with the support provided by Syed Ahmad Khan in 1906. It was founded in Dhaka in a response to reintegration of Bengal after a mass Hindu protest took place in the subcontinent. Earlier in 1905, viceroy Lord Curzonpartitioned the Bengal which was favoured by the Muslims, since it gave them a Muslim majority in the eastern half.
In 1909, Lord Minto promulgated the Council Act and met with a Muslim delegation led by Aga Khan III to meet with Viceroy Lord Minto, a deal to which Minto agreed because it appeared to assist the British divide and rule strategy. The delegation consisted of 35 members, who each represented their respective region proportionately, mentioned hereunder.
- Sir Aga Khan III. (Head of the delegation); (Bombay).
- Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. (Aligarh).
- Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. (Muradabad).
- Maulvi Hafiz Hakim Ajmal Khan. (Delhi).
- Maulvi Syed Karamat Husain. (Allahabad).
- Maulvi Sharifuddin (Patna).
- Nawab Syed Sardar Ali Khan (Bombay).
- Syed Abdul Rauf. (Allahabad).
- Maulvi Habiburrehman Khan. (Aligarh).
- Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. (Aligarh).
- Abdul Salam Khan. (Rampur).
- Raees Muhammed Ahtasham Ali. (Lucknow)
- Khan Bahadur Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan. (Aligarh).
- Haji Muhammed Ismail Khan. (Aligarh).
- Shehzada Bakhtiar Shah. (Calcutta).
- Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (Shahpur).
- Khan Bahadur Muhammed Shah Deen. (Lahore).
- Khan Bahadur Syed Nawab Ali Chaudhary. (Mymansingh).
- Nawab Bahadur Mirza Shuja'at Ali Baig. (Murshidabad).
- Nawab Nasir Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
- Khan Bahadur Syed Ameer Hassan Khan. (Calcutta).
- Syed Muhammed Imam. (Patna).
- Nawab Sarfaraz Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
- Maulvi Rafeeuddin Ahmed. (Bombay).
- Khan Bahadur Ahmed Muhaeeuddin. (Madras).
- Ibraheem Bhai Adamjee Pirbhai. (Bombay).
- Maulvi Abdul Raheem. (Calcutta).
- Syed Allahdad Shah. (Khairpur).
- Maulana H. M. Malik. (Nagpur).
- Khan Bahadur Col. Abdul Majeed Khan. (Patiala).
- Khan Bahadur Khawaja Yousuf Shah. (Amritsar).
- Khan Bahadur Mian Muhammad Shafi. (Lahore).
- Khan Bahadur Shaikh Ghulam Sadiq. (Amritsar).
- Syed Nabiullah. (Allahabad).
- Khalifa Syed Muhammed Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
Despite its activism and educated mass, the party remained less influential in various areas as compared to political movements such as Khaksars, Khudai Khidmatgar, Ahrar, and Hirat until the 1930s.
At the 1940 Muslim League conference in Lahore in 1940, Jinnah said: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature.... It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes.... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state." At Lahore the Muslim League formally recommitted itself to creating an independent Muslim state, including Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan, the North West Frontier Province and Bengal, that would be "wholly autonomous and sovereign". The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions. The Lahore Resolution, moved by the sitting Chief Minister of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq, was adopted on 23 March 1940, and its principles formed the foundation for Pakistan's first constitution. Talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944 in Bombay failed to achieve agreement. This was the last attempt to reach a single-state solution.
World War II
Main articles: Anglomania, Pakistan United Kingdom relations, and Little Pakistan
On 3 September 1939, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announced the commencement of war with Germany.[page needed] In 1939, the Congress leaders resigned from all British India government to which they had elected. The Muslim League celebrated the end of Congress led British Indian government, with Jinnah famously quoting: "a day of deliverance and thanksgiving." In a secret memorandum writing to British Prime Minister, the Muslim League obliged to support the United Kingdom's war efforts— provided that the British had recognise it as the only organisation that spoke for Indian Muslims.
The events leading the World War II, the Congress effective protest against the United Kingdom unilaterally involving India in the war without consulting with the congress; the Muslim League went on to support the British war efforts, which was allowed to actively propagandise against the Congress with the cry of "Islam in Danger".
The Indian Congress and Muslim League responded differently over the World War II issue. The Indian Congress refused to oblige with the Britain unless the whole Indian subcontinent was granted the independence. The Muslim League, on the other hand, supported Britain, with the means of political co-operation and human contribution. The Muslim League leaders' British education training and philosophical ideas played a role that brought the British government and the Muslim to be close to each other. Jinnah himself supported the British in World War II when the Congress failed to form any form of collaboration. The British government suddenly made a pledge to the Muslims in 1940 that it would not transfer power to an Independent India unless its constitution was first approved by the Indian Muslims, a promise it did not subsequently keep.
The end of the war
In 1942, Gandhi called for the Quit India Movement against the United Kingdom. On the other hand, the Muslim League advised Prime Minister Winston Churchill that Great Britain should "divide and then Quit". Negotiations between Gandhi and Viceroy Wavell failed, as did talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944. When World War II ended, the Muslim League's push for the Pakistan Movement and Gandhi's efforts for Indian independence intensified the pressure on Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Given the rise of American and Russianorder in the world politics and the general unrest in India, Wavell called for general elections to be held in 1945.
In the 1940s, Jinnah emerged as a leader of the Indian Muslims and was popularly known as Quaid-e-Azam (‘Great Leader’). The general elections held in 1945 for the Constituent Assembly of British Indian Empire, the Muslim League secured and won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims (and about 89.2% of Muslim votes) on a policy of creating an independent state of Pakistan, and with an implied threat of secession if this was not granted. The Congress which was led by Gandhi and Nehru remained adamantly opposed to dividing India. The partition seems to have been inevitable after all, one of the examples being Lord Mountbatten's statement on Jinnah: "There was no argument that could move him from his consuming determination to realize the impossible dream of Pakistan."
Stephen P. Cohen, an American historian of Pakistan, writes in The Idea of Pakistan of the influence of South Asian Muslim nationalism on the Pakistan movement:
[The ethnoloinguistic-nationalist narrative] begins with a glorious precolonial state-empire when the Muslims of South Asia were politically united and culturally, civilizationally, and strategically dominant. In that era, ethnolinguistic differences were subsumed under a common vision of an Islamic-inspired social and political order. However, the divisions among Muslims that did exist were exploited by the British, who practiced 'divide-and-rule' politics, displacing the Mughals and circumscribing other Islamic rulers. Moreover, the Hindus were the allies of the British, who used them to strike a balance with the Muslims; many Hindus, a fundamentally insecure people, hated Muslims and would have oppressed them in a one-man, one-vote democratic India. The Pakistan freedom movement united these disparate pieces of the national puzzle, and Pakistan was the expression of the national will of India's liberated Muslims.
— Stephen Cohen, The Idea of Pakistan (2004)
The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning the majority of Muslim votes and reserved Muslim seats in the Central and provincial assemblies, performing exceptionally well in Muslim minority provinces such as UP and Bihar, relative to the Muslim majority provinces of Punjab and NWFP. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite where the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan; a plebiscite which the Muslim League won. This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the rural peasantry of Bengal as well as the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise that the Muslim League represented Indian Muslims. The British had no alternative except to take Jinnah's views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson for India's Muslims. However, the British did not desire India to be partitioned and in one last effort to avoid it they arranged the Cabinet Mission plan. In 1946, the Cabinet Mission Plan recommended a decentralised but united India, this was accepted by the Muslim League but rejected by the Congress, thus, leading the way for the Partition of India.
Political campaigns and support
A key battleground during the elections was the Punjab province. The Punjab had a slight Muslim majority, and local politics had been dominated by the secular Unionist Party and its longtime leader Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan. The Unionists had built a formidable power base in the Punjabi countryside through policies of patronage allowing them to retain the loyalty of landlords and pirs who exerted significant local influence. For the Muslim League to claim to represent the Muslim vote, they would need to win over the majority of the seats held by the Unionists. Following the death of Sir Sikander in 1942, and bidding to overcome their dismal showing in the elections of 1937, the Muslim League intensified campaigning throughout rural and urban Punjab.
A major thrust of the Muslim's League's campaign was the increased use of religious symbolism. Activists were advised to join in communal prayers when visiting villages, and gain permission to hold meetings after the Friday prayers. The Quran became a symbol of the Muslim League at rallies, and pledges to vote where made on it. Students, a key component of the Muslim League's activists, were trained to appeal to the electorate on communal lines, and at the peak of student activity during the Christmas holidays of 1945, 250 students from Aligarh were invited to campaign in the province along with 1550 members of the Punjab Muslim Student's Federation. A key achievement of their religious propaganda came in enticing Muslim Jats and Gujjars from their intercommunal tribal loyalties. In response, the Unionists attempted to counter the growing religious appeal of the Muslim League by introducing religious symbolism into their own campaign, but with no student activists to rely upon and dwindling support amongst the landlords, their attempts met with little success.
To further their religious appeal, the Muslim League also launched efforts to entice Pirs towards their cause. Pirs dominated the religious landscape, and were individuals who claimed to inherit religious authority from Sufi Saints who had proselytised in the region since the eleventh century. By the twentieth century, most Punjabi Muslims offered allegiance to a Pir as their religious guide, thus providing them considerable political influence. The Unionists had successfully cultivated the support of Pirs to achieve success in the 1937 elections, and the Muslim League now attempted to replicate their method of doing so. To do so, the Muslim League created the Masheikh Committee, used Urs ceremonies and shrines for meetings and rallies and encouraged fatwas urging support for the Muslim League. Reasons for the pirs switching allegiance varied. For the Gilani Pirs of Multan the over-riding factor was local longstanding factional rivalries, whilst for many others a shrines size and relationship with the government dictated its allegiance.
Despite the Muslim League's aim to foster a united Muslim loyalty, it also recognised the need to better exploit the biradari network and appeal to primordial tribal loyalties. In 1946 it held a special Gujjar conference intending to appeal to all Muslim Gujjars, and lifted its ban on Jahanara Shahnawaz with the hope of appealing to Arain constituencies. Appealing to biradari ties enabled the Muslim League to accelerate support amongst landlords, and in turn use the landlords client-patron economic relationship with their tenants to guarantee votes for the forthcoming election.
A separate strategy of the Muslim League was to exploit the economic slump suffered in the Punjab as a result of the Second World War. The Punjab had supplied 27 per cent of the Indian Army recruits during the war, constituting 800,000 men, and representing a significant part of the electorate. By 1946, less than 20 per cent of those servicemen returning home had found employment. This in part was exacerbated by the speedy end to the war in Asia, which caught the Unionist's by surprise, and meant their plans to deploy servicemen to work in canal colonies were not yet ready. The Muslim League took advantage of this weakness and followed Congress's example of providing work to servicemen within its organisation. The Muslim League's ability to offer an alternative to the Unionist government, namely the promise of Pakistan as an answer to the economic dislocation suffered by Punjabi villagers, was identified as a key issue for the election.
On the eve of the elections, the political landscape in the Punjab was finely poised, and the Muslim League offered a credible alternative to the Unionist Party. The transformation itself had been rapid, as most landlords and pirs had not switched allegiance until after 1944. The breakdown of talks between the Punjab Premier, Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana and Muhammad Ali Jinnah in late 1944 had meant many Muslims were now forced to choose between the two parties at the forthcoming election. A further blow for the Unionists came with death of its leading statesman Sir Chhotu Ram in early 1945.
The Western Punjab was home to a small minority population of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus up to 1947 apart from the Muslim majority. In 1947, the Punjab Assembly cast its vote in favour of Pakistan with supermajority rule, which made many minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Western Punjab and across Pakistan.
Both the Muslim landed elite, waderas, and the Hindu commercial elements, banias, collaborated in oppressing the predominantly Muslim peasantry of Sindh who were economically exploited. In Sindh’s first provincial election after its separation from Bombay in 1936, economic interests were an essential factor of politics informed by religious and cultural issues.  Due to British policies, much land in Sindh was transferred from Muslim to Hindu hands over the decades.  The exploitation of Sindhi Muslims by Sindhi Hindus had reached alarming proportions.  Religious tensions rose in Sindh over the Sukkur Manzilgah issue where Muslims and Hindus disputed over an abandoned mosque in proximity to an area sacred to Hindus. The Sindh Muslim League exploited the issue and agitated for the return of the mosque to Muslims. Consequentially, a thousand members of the Muslim League were imprisoned. Eventually, due to panic the government restored the mosque to Muslims. 
The separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency triggered Sindhi Muslim nationalists to support the Pakistan Movement. Even while the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province were ruled by parties hostile to the Muslim League, Sindh remained loyal to Jinnah.  Although the prominent Sindhi Muslim nationalist G.M. Syed left the All India Muslim League in the mid-1940s and his relationship with Jinnah never improved, the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims supported the creation of Pakistan, seeing in it their deliverance.  Sindhi support for the Pakistan Movement arose from the desire of the Sindhi Muslim business class to drive out their Hindu competitors.  The Muslims League’s rise to becoming the party with the strongest support in Sindh was in large part linked to its winning over of the religious pir families. Although the Muslim Leaue had previously fared poorly in the 1937 elections in Sindh, when local Sindhi Muslim parties won more seats,  the Muslim League’s cultivation of support from the pirs and saiyids of Sindh in 1946 helped it gain a foothold in the province.
Unlike Punjab, Balochistan, and Sindh, the Muslim League had little support in Khyber–Pakhtunkhwa. Here the Congress and Pashtun nationalist leader Abdul Ghaffar Khan had considerable support for the cause of the united India.
During the Independence period there was a Congress-led ministry in the province, which was led by secular Pashtun leaders, including Abdul Ghaffar Khan, who preferred joining India instead of Pakistan. The secular Pashtun leadership was also of the view that if joining India was not an option then they should espouse the cause of an independent ethnic Pashtun state rather than Pakistan. The secular stance of Abdul Ghaffar Khan had driven a wedge between the ulama of the otherwise pro-Congress (and pro-Indian unity) Jamiat Ulema Hind (JUH) and Abdul Ghaffar Khan's Khudai Khidmatgars. The directives of the ulama in the province began to take on communal tones. The ulama saw the Hindus in the province as a 'threat' to Muslims. Accusations of molesting Muslim women were levelled at Hindu shopkeepers in Nowshera, a town where anti-Hindu sermons were delivered by maulvis. Tensions also rose in 1936 over the abduction of a Hindu girl in Bannu. Such controversies stirred up anti-Hindu sentiments amongst the province's Muslim population. By 1947 the majority of the ulama in the province began supporting the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan.
Immediately prior to Pakistani independence from Britain in 1947, the British held a referendum in the NWFP to allow voters to choose between joining Pakistan or India. The referendum was held on 2 July 1947 while polling began on 6 July 1947 and the referendum results were made public on 20 July 1947. According to the official results, there were 572,798 registered voters out of which 289,244 (99.02%) votes were cast in favor of Pakistan while only 2874 (0.98%) were cast in favor of India. According to an estimate the total turnout for the referendum was only 15% less than the total turnout in the 1946 elections. At the same time a large number of Khudai Khidmatgar supporters boycotted the referendum and intimidation against Hindu and Sikh voters by supporters of the Pakistan Movement was also reported.
During British rule Balochistan was under the rule of a Chief Commissioner and did not have the same status as other provinces of British India . The Muslim League under Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the period 1927-1947 strived to introduce reforms in Balochistan to bring it on par with other provinces of British India.
During the Pakistan Movement, public opinion in Balochistan, at least in Quetta and other small towns, was overwhelmingly in favour of Pakistan. The pro-India Congress, which drew support from Hindus and some Muslims, sensing that geographic and demographic compulsions would not allow the province’s inclusion into the newly Independent India, began to encourage separatist elements in Balochistan, and other Muslim majority provinces such as NWFP.
Balochistan contained a Chief Commissioner's province and four princely states under the British Raj. The province's Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of the Quetta Municipality opted for Pakistan unanimously on 29 June 1947. Three of the princely states, Makran, Las Bela and Kharan, acceded to Pakistan in 1947 after independence. But the ruler of the fourth princely state, the Khan of Kalat, Ahmad Yar Khan, who used to call Jinnah his 'father', declared Kalat's independence as this was one of the options given to all of the 535 princely states by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee.
Kalat finally acceded to Pakistan on March 27, 1948 after the 'strange help' of All India Radio and a period of negotiations and bureaucratic tactics used by Pakistan. The signing of the Instrument of Accession by Ahmad Yar Khan, led his brother, Prince Abdul Karim, to revolt against his brother's decision in July 1948. Princes Agha Abdul Karim Baloch and Muhammad Rahim, refused to lay down arms, leading the Dosht-e Jhalawan in unconventional attacks on the army until 1950. The Princes fought a lone battle without support from the rest of Balochistan.
The Pakistan Movement was highly popular in the Muslim population of Bengal, which was also the birthplace of the Muslim League, in the 1940s. Many of the Muslim League's notable statesman and activists hailed from East Bengal, including Husyen Suhrawardy, Nazimuddin, and Nurul Amin, who later all became Prime ministers of Pakistan. Following the partition of Bengal, violence erupted in the region, which was mainly contained to Kolkata and Noakhali. It is documented by Pakistani historians that Suhrawardy wanted Bengal to be an independent state that would neither join Pakistan or India but would remained unpartitioned. Despite the heavy criticism from the Muslim League, Jinnah realised the validity of Suhrawardy's argument and gave his tacit support to the idea of an Independent Bengal.
During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma had an ambition to annexe and merge their region into East-Pakistan. Before the independence of Burma in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in annexing of the Mayu region to Pakistan which was about to be formed. Two months later, North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern: Sittwe, capital of Arakan State), it, too demanding annexation to Pakistan. However, it is noted that the proposal was never materialised after it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah.
Role of Ulama
In its election campaign in 1946 the Muslim League drew upon the support of Islamic scholars and Sufis with the rallying cry of 'Islam in danger'. The majority of Barelvis supported the creation of Pakistan and Barelvi ulama issued fatwas in support of the Muslim League. In contrast, most Deobandi ulama (led by Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani) opposed the creation of Pakistan and the two-nation theory. Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani and the Deobandis advocated 'composite nationalism', according to which Muslims and Hindus were one nation. Madani differentiated between 'qaum' -which meant a multi-religious nation- and 'millat'-which was exclusively the social unity of Muslims. However, a few highly influential Deobandi clerics did support the creation of Pakistan. Such Deobandi ulama included Mufti Muhammad Shafi and Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Uthmani.Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi also supported the Muslim League's demand for the creation of Pakistan and he dismissed the criticism that most Muslim League members were not practising Muslims. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi was of the view that the Muslim League should be supported and also be advised at the same time to become religiously observant.
Further information: Partition of India, Indian Independence Act 1947, Bangladesh Liberation War, 1969 uprising in East Pakistan, and Breakup of East and West Pakistan
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898) philosophical ideas plays a direct role in the Pakistan Movement. His Two-Nation Theory became more and more obvious during the Congress rule in the Subcontinent. In 1946, the Muslim majorities agreed to the idea of Pakistan, as a response to Congress's one sided policies, which were also the result of leaders like Jinnah leaving the party in favour of Muslim League, winning in seven of the 11 provinces. Prior to 1938, Bengal with 33 million Muslims had only ten representatives, less than the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, which were home to only seven million Muslims. Thus the creation of Pakistan became inevitable and the British had no choice but to create two separate nations – Pakistan and India – in 1947.
But the main motivating and integrating factor was that the Muslims' intellectual class wanted representation; the masses needed a platform on which to unite. It was the dissemination of western thought by John Locke, Milton and Thomas Paine, at the Aligarh Muslim University that initiated the emergence of Pakistan Movement. According to Pakistan Studies curriculum, Muhammad bin Qasim is often referred to as 'the first Pakistani'.Muhammad Ali Jinnah also acclaimed the Pakistan movement to have started when the first Muslim put a foot in the Gateway of Islam.
After the independence in 1947, the violence and upheavals continued to be faced by Pakistan, as Liaquat Ali Khan becoming the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1947. The issue involving the equal status of Urdu and Bengali languages created divergence in the country's political ideology. Need for good governance led to the military take over in 1958 which was followed by rapid industrialisation in the 1960s. Economic grievances and unbalanced financial payments led to a bloody and an armed struggle of East Pakistan in the 1970s, in which eventually resulted with East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh in 1971.
In the successive periods of tragedy of East-Pakistan, the country continued to rebuild and reconstruct itself in terms constitutionally and its path to transformed into republicanism. The XIII amendment (1997) and XVIII amendment (2010) transformed the country into becoming a parliamentary republic as well as also becoming a nuclear power in the subcontinent.
Non-Muslims contribution and efforts
Main articles: Christianity in Pakistan, Hinduism in Pakistan, Sikhism in Pakistan, and Protestantism in Pakistan
Jinnah's vision was supported by few of the Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, Jews and Christians that lived in Muslim-dominated regions of undivided India. The most notable and influential Hindu figure in the Pakistan Movement was Jogendra Nath Mandal from Bengal. Jagannath Azad was from the Urdu-speaking belt. Mandal represented the Hindu contingent calling for an independent Pakistan, and was one of the founding-fathers of Pakistan. After the independence, Mandal was given ministries of Law, Justice, and Work-Force by Jinnah in Liaquat Ali Khan's government. He returned to India and submitted his resignation to Liaquat Ali Khan, the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Some local Christians also stood behind Jinnah's vision, playing a pivotal role in the movement. The notable Christians included Sir Victor Turner and